Silent Generation - Turned Away - Demo 1998 (Cassette)
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His father is a blind guitarist. The 18th Amendment was ratified on January 29th,having been approved by 36 states, and went into effect as Federal law on January 29th, In many respects, prohibition had the opposite of its intended effect.
For example, before prohibition, few, if any women drank in bars. However, women were very likely to drink in speakeasies. Prohibition indirectly helped the cause and image of Jazz. This kicks off the Classic Blues craze of the s. Over forty prominent New Orleans Jazzmen have moved to Chicago.
Somebody discovers that the New York brownstone basement being narrow and running from the main street to back alley is well suited to use as a speakeasy. In time, the cellars of New York City will become riddled with speakeasies providing numerous opportunities for Jazz musicians. The cabaret business begins in New York.
This will eventually be the cause of the shift of Jazz from Chicago to New York. This year marks the beginning of an age of great interest in black arts and music Jazz. The young future Bop players are being born. They will be raised in an era that will allow them to rebel. Thus, Bop will begin in about twenty years.
James P. At any rate, Johnson becomes the pioneer of Silent Generation - Turned Away - Demo 1998 (Cassette) piano with these recordings. Paul Whiteman controls twenty-eight bands on the east coast. The spring-wound talking machine with pre-electrical, no-fidelity sound was established and probably the most popular of the home entertainment devices; the best selling makes were the Victrola and the Graphanola. He helps redesign and refine the Gibson carved archtop instruments to help increase lagging sales.
His designs have become the standards to which all other carved instruments strive. He developed the F series mandolins and the L series guitars including the Gibson F-5 mandolin and the Gibson L-5 guitar that has become the most sought after collection instruments of the century.
Ironically, his work was ahead of its time and was not immediately understood or appreciated. Gibson sales did not immediately rise. Comedian Ed Wynn is responsible for creating the first studio audience when he refuses to perform without an audience watching.
Lloyd Loar began working on experimental electrostatic pickups at Gibson as a means to amplify the guitar and make it louder and more suitable as a competitor to the banjo for rhythm and increase its potential as a solo instrument. Ellington makes his first recording on a cylinder — acoustic recording still most used.
A Theater Owners Booking Association circuit for almost a quarter-century. Harmony became the largest producer of musical instruments in the US with overunits. This is the band that will be the model for the swing bands of the next decade. This paved the way for more modern forms of Jazz. Charlie Parker as a child growing up in K. Lloyd Loar leaves Gibson Musical Instruments to start his own company.
Rhapsody in Blue, by George Gershwin, was performed for the first time. Gershwin was the piano soloist accompanied by the Paul Whiteman Orchestra. The National Life and Accident Insurance Company in Nashville, Tennessee, installed a radio station on the 5th floor of their downtown Nashville office building.
Blind Lemon Jefferson recorded over eighty blues tunes between and and was generally responsible for the surge of popularity in the country blues in this period. One of their discoveries was Blind Blake, a swinging, sophisticated guitarist whose warm relaxed voice was a far cry from harsh country blues.
Charlie Poole developed a three-fingered banjo playing technique after a baseball accident injured his right hand. This technique influenced many banjo players and would later be perfected by Earl Scruggs.
In July, Tennessee legislators made it unlawful to teach anything but creationism. John Scopes, a high school teacher in Dayton, decided to test the law. Henry Ford introduced the 8-hour workday and the 5-day workweek.
This was in reaction to the depressed auto industry. Other industrialists were afraid of the precedent but the AFL welcomed the move as a means of controlling overproduction and reducing unemployment. Charles A. Lindbergh flies a Ryan monoplane — named Spirit of St. Louis — on the first solo transatlantic flight and first non-stop fixed-wing aircraft flight between America and mainland Europe on May 20th — May 21st. The flight was 3, nautical miles 6, kmfrom Long Island to Paris, in The flight was timed by the Longines watch company.
Americans will buy more than , phonograph records during this year. He is now setting whole phrases ahead of or behind the beat, not just pulling single notes. This will set the stage for Swing. Armstrong is now a star and because of him, New Orleans style ensemble playing is disappearing and is being replaced by Chicago and New York-style solos.
In short, Jazz is becoming a soloist art primarily because of Armstrong. Bing Crosby joins the Paul Whiteman band. They took the names of everybody that was caught with alcohol. They had already closed a number of the South Side black-and-tans. Chicago would soon fall as the Jazz capital. John Dopyera invented the resonator guitar in an effort to increase the volume of the 6 stringed instruments to better compete with banjos for the rhythm sections of bands.
The partnership only lasted until The first signature series guitar was instigated by the Gibson Company for Nick Lucas — a popular singer and musician of the day. He lives in a caravan near a cemetery. His wife sells silk flowers to support them.
One night, Django is trying to remove a rat and he catches the flowers on fire with a candle. He burns his legs and his left hand badly saving his wife. His left hand never completely healed with two fingers partially paralyzed. He nevertheless became a great guitarist in months.
Walt Disney released the first Mickey Mouse silent film Plane Crazyand later the same year, Steamboat Willythe first animated cartoon with sound. His fiery and romantic performance touched the hearts and imaginations of the public and led to five more sold-out New York City performances and then an equally successful tour of 25 American cities. Hundreds of young musicians were inspired to take up the versatile and expressive instrument.
Martin introduces the OM sized and scaled flat-top guitar. Martin also introduced the first 14 fret neck-body intersection. On March 5th, in the early morning, Eddie Condon suggests to Tommy Rockwell producer of the Hot Fives and Sevens that he take the opportunity to record Armstrong with some of the superb musicians who have gathered to honor Armstrong.
Rockwell is concerned about a mixed group but goes ahead anyway. Duke Ellington appears in a short called Black and Tan. Ellington is portrayed as a handsome, elegant, hard-working composer even though the subject matter is degrading. Memphis Minnie signed with Columbia records. Harmony musical instruments sold overunits. Although the song has four stanzas, only the first is commonly used today. Adolph Rickenbacher later spelled Rickenbacker produces a working prototype of the electric guitar.
The vibration of the strings over a coil of wire wrapped around a magnet created a current that could be electrically amplified. Martin starts selling Dreadnaught sized flat-top guitars under its own name. They had been making them for Ditson since The broadcast series came about in the early years of the Great Depression to help the financially endangered Metropolitan Opera by attempting to enlarge its audience and support through national exposure on network radio.
These allowed the production of economical built-in power supplies that could be plugged into wall sockets. The design was developed by Western Electric and made available to the public. The earlier vacuum tube amplification designs required heavy multiple battery packs. Electronic amplification of guitar was first widely popularized by the s and s craze for Hawaiian music, to amplify the popular lap steel Hawaiian guitar. In France, classical guitarist Mario Maccaferri developed a new guitar design to increase volume.
With the help of the Selmer Company, the instruments went public. They had an internal resonator, steel reinforced neck and cut-a-way. The design worked and the acoustic guitar was capable of becoming a lead instrument. RCA introduced the model 77A cardioid pattern dual ribbon microphone for recording and radio broadcast. The listening public could now hear the nuance of speech and music over the airwaves. Homer Capehart sold his Simplex record changer mechanism to the Wurlitzer Company.
Wurlitzer used the invention to produce the jukebox. The jukebox changed the face of popular music by making new tunes available to all. Instrument manufacturer Dobro made a handful of modified resonator Spanish style guitars with electromagnetic horseshoe pickups. These can be argued to be the first manufactured electric Spanish style guitars with electromagnetic pickups. From tothe Committee was authorized to investigate Nazi propaganda and certain other propaganda activities.
The biggest archtop to hit the market and the highest price tag at the height of the depression. The competition for the biggest and flashiest instruments was on. The trial was broadcast on network radio and the new format found an eager and appreciative audience. These record jockeys, as they were called, were soon entertaining listeners with discs all over the country.
The Big Band Era had begun. Mahalia Jackson made her first Gospel recordings. T-Bone Walker began experimenting with a prototype electric guitar and was one of the first guitarists anywhere to play the instrument in public. The instrument was probably a Rickenbacker Vibrola model.
He soon got his hands on a Gibson sunburst ES that he played into the late s. Gibson introduced the ES The was basically a modified L archtop fitted with a bar electromagnetic pickup. It was viewed as the first readily available production model electric guitar. Gibson introduces the Super Jumbo flat-top acoustic guitar. It is seen in the hands of Ray Whitley and Gene Autry on the silver screen. Robert Johnson made his second and last recording session in Dallas, Texas.
Patents were granted to George Beauchamp for the electromagnetic horseshoe pickups, filed originally in and He used the public platform as a way to have his songs heard and tell stories of what he had seen and experienced through the American mid-west and the Dust Bowl years. Bill Monroe forms the Blue Grass Boys, creating a fusion of Appalachian folk music with blues, polka and other genres from around the world.
Roy Acuff joined the Grand Ole Opry. Leo Fender was a qualified electronics technician and had been asked to repair radios, phonograph players, home audio amplifiers, public address systems and musical instrument amplifiers.
At the time, most of these were just variations on a few simple vacuum-tube circuits. World War II had begun. The film was a hit. Some historians feel that this marked the beginning of the Silent Generation - Turned Away - Demo 1998 (Cassette) Swing craze.
Within a very short time cowboy hats, boots, string ties and rawhide vests were seen all over Southern California. South Carolina native Dizzy Gillespie began an innovative style of trumpet performance that would come to be called BeBop. Guitarist Les Paul signs an endorsement deal with Gibson, appearing in ads with the ES electric archtop model.
They shared a political preference to promoted peace and isolationism before the start of World War II. They featured songs opposing entry into the war.
The Almanac Singers supported the change and began to produce many pro-war songs urging the U. The Almanac Singers disbanded when the U. Epaminondas Epi Strathopoulo of Epiphone dies on June 6th, at age Gobitis that students in public schools could be compelled to swear the Pledge of Allegiance.
Barnette — that public school students are not required to say the Pledge of Allegiance. In a later opinion, the Court held that students are also not required to stand for the Pledge.
With the support of one of his clients, guitarist Andre Segovia, he successfully introduced nylon strings for classical guitars. Circus Tent Fire.
The tent could seat 9, around three performance rings. To keep it waterproof, the canvas had been treated with 1, lbs kg of paraffin wax dissolved in 6, gallons 23, l of kerosene.
On Thursday a work daythe afternoon performance was estimated at 7, dominated by women and children. A small fire began on the Southwest sidewall of the tent while the Great Wallendas were performing.
It accelerated quickly due to the flammable canvas treatment. As Ringmaster Fred Bradna urged the audience not to panic and to leave in an orderly fashion, the power failed and his instructions could not be heard. The death toll is estimated at with injury estimates of over people. Young Robert Dale Segee confessed to starting the fire but was never tried and later recanted.
The Hartford circus fire was one of the worst fire disasters in United States history. Hal Blaine, famous percussionist of the Wrecking Crew, was one of the small children at the fire. President Roosevelt died. Harry Truman became president of the United States. Mussolini was killed by Italian partisans on April 28th. German forces surrendered in Italy on April 29th and Germany itself surrendered on May 7th. At the order of U. President Harry S. Truman, after 6 months of intense firebombing of 67 other Japanese cities, the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on the city of Hiroshima on Monday, August 6th,followed on August 9th by the detonation of the Fat Man nuclear bomb over Nagasaki.
These are to-date the only attacks with nuclear weapons in the history of warfare. RCA Victor and Columbia held out for nearly two years more. Les Paul invents echo-delay, multi-track recording and many other techniques that further expand recording possibilities. Les Paul takes his homemade experimental semi-solid guitar to Gibson to try to sell the instrument commercially. Gibson says no. The bikini was introduced in Paris. Two-piece swimsuits had been in fashion since the early s, and always covered the navel.
He predicted the new fashion would incite a cultural explosion to rival the recent nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll. It took a while for the bikini to catch on in the United States. Merle sketched an idea for a solid body guitar and asked if Paul could build it for him.
It had all six tuning pegs on one side of the headstock and was completed in and played by Merle on numerous recordings, radio and public appearances. Merle claims that Leo Fender borrowed and copied the guitar, but no one seems to know for sure. The Ravens introduce a new form of harmony singing featuring bass vocalist Jimmy Ricks out front with tenor Maithe Marshall floating on top of the melody.
Ampex introduced the first commercially available magnetic tape recording machine in the US The technology had been developed in Nazi Germany in the s. The Ampex Model They also hire future singing stars B. King and Rufus Thomas as DJs. Multitrack magnetic recording was born. Gordon Jenkins, an arranger-bandleader with connections to Decca Records, heard them there and was impressed.
His discovery led to a record deal with Decca. Senator from the State of Wisconsin from until his death in Beginning inMcCarthy became the public face of intense anti-communist suspicion inspired by the tensions of the Cold War. The McCarthy era had begun. The Weavers felt some compromises were worth getting the songs exposed to the public. The new approach initially proved successful.
The Korean War began on June 25th, The forerunner of the Fender Telecaster was Introduced for national distribution as the Broadcaster in the autumn of The earliest versions in the spring of were the single and dual-pickup Esquire models. A wave of young black vocal groups springs up with variations of the style popularized by the Orioles.
It tops the charts. His initial audience was Silent Generation - Turned Away - Demo 1998 (Cassette) blacks, but he quickly attracted young white listeners.
This helped burn songs into their collective memory. It helped shape the influences of a generation. It remains in production today. Seth Lover joined Gibson as a full-time employee to work in the electronics department. Among other things, he began to work on new pickup designs. Johnny Ace, a former piano player with the Beale Streeters, a group that included blues legends B.
Only three 78rpm and no 45rpm copies are known to exist. The Folkways anthology presented African-American and white roots music as equally valid. Political ballads were treated the same as Creole Chants. Some feel this to be the definitive collection of early American music. He was the former five-star general who served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe.
He died during the night. He was 43 years old. Major hostilities in the Korean War ended with the armistice signed on July 27th.
This cleared the way for the manufacture of standardized preamplifiers and the beginning of the audiophile market — the research and development of better sounding playback equipment speakers, preamplifiers, amplifiers, phonograph cartridges and turntables. The owner of Sun Records, Sam Phillips, was out that day. Hays took the Fifth Amendment to avoid prosecution. Seeger simply refused to answer, claiming his First Amendment rights.
He was the first to do so after the conviction of the Hollywood Ten in Seeger was found guilty of contempt and placed under restrictions by the court pending appeal.
Seeger was added to the entertainment industry blacklist publication Red Channels. All of the Weavers were placed under FBI surveillance and not allowed to perform on television or radio. Decca Records terminated their recording contract and deleted their records from the Decca catalog. Since their recordings were denied airplay, they lost all income from royalties. Right-wing and anti-Communist groups protested at their performances and harassed promoters.
After this, Pete Seeger built upon his solo career. He found interest and support in the College Circuit and teaching music to children. Mario Maccaferri introduced plastic guitars. It had worked well with plastic ukuleles inbut the plastic flat-top G and archtop G never really caught on.
December — The first issue of Playboy was published. The centerfold was a fully naked Marilyn Monroe stretched upon a deep red velvet background with an upraised arm, closed eyes and open mouth. The first issue sold out within a few weeks. Later inthe Senate voted to censure Senator McCarthy by a vote of 67 to 22, making him one of the few senators ever to be disciplined in this fashion. February 8th: Rep. Charles Oakman R-Mich. Congress passed the necessary legislation and Eisenhower signed the bill into law on Flag Day, June 14th, Pop record companies try desperately to capitalize on the fad by having white artists cover black vocal group records and the increased distribution and radio play assures many of those versions of becoming the hits.
They worked for hours without much luck. Sam stepped out the back of the control room into the ally for a cigarette, tempted to give up on the session. Wide public exposure to Rockabilly was born with the release of the record on July 19th. Following the show, he was told by Opry manager Jim Denny that he should go back to Memphis and his truck-driving career.
Elvis swore never to return. It would be 39 years before that record was broken. Disneyland opened in Anaheim, California. It was a come-back for the group following their inclusion on the entertainment industry blacklist. Pete Seeger was convicted of contempt of Congress for refusing to discuss his political affiliations with the House Committee of Un-American Activities HUACalthough the conviction was overturned on appeal in May, Louis, Missouri traveled to Chicago where he met Muddy Waters.
Waters suggested he contact Leonard Chess of Chess Records. At that time, Chess had seen the blues market shrink and was looking to move beyond the rhythm and blues market, and he thought Berry might be that artist who could do it. The song ushers in descending pentatonic double-stops, which becomes the essence of rock guitar.
Full-length albums with their higher prices limit their appeal for teenagers and remain largely the realm of adult pop singers for another decade. It killed their hits for four years due to radio blackballing. State police subsequently ban all further rock concerts in the state. Boston follows suit by assembling a record censorship board to prevent dirty rock records from being played on the air. With censorship prevalent, white cover records still hold a slight edge in radio play but not in sales.
Seth Lover begins work on a new humbucking pickup design at Gibson. Ray Butts begins work on a new humbucking pickup design for Gretsch. He appears twice on The Ed Sullivan Show in the fall to big ratings, and releases his first film that November.
Donegan had synthesized American Southern Blues with simple acoustic instruments: acoustic guitar, washtub bass and washboard rhythm. The new style captivated an entire generation of post-war youth in England. The Legality of this motto was quickly challenged as the United States Constitution forbids the government to make any law respecting the establishment of a national religion.
The official cause of death was acute hepatitis. It is widely accepted that this was brought on by alcoholism. Kerouac is recognized for his spontaneous method of writing on topics including Catholic spirituality, jazz, promiscuity, Buddhism, drugs, poverty, and travel.
There is still disagreement as to who designed the first humbucker. On his final Ed Sullivan appearance, Elvis Presley is filmed from the waist up. The screams from the studio audience only make what the home viewer was missing even more suggestive. Jailhouse Rock, starring Elvis Presley, is considered the best rock film and introduces a precursor to the rock video, as the title song has an elaborate setting in a jail cell choreographed by Presley himself.
The ratings, however, beat the top-ranked Ed Sullivan Show f or the first time that year. The stroll becomes the first dance associated with rock. In August, The Weavers reassembled for a series of recording sessions for Vanguard. The group was booked by Vanguard for a January 15th, session to record a rock-and-roll single.
In February, Gilbert, Hays, and Hellerman overruled Seeger about recording a cigarette ad for a tobacco company. Seeger opposed the idea as a sell-out to commercial interests. He decided to resign. Seeger honored his commitment to record the jingle and then left the group on March 3rd, Lennon met Paul McCartney on July 6th and added him to the group a few days later.
Following the dance, Paul played a few of his own songs. It was inspirational for John Lennon. White rockers seldom wrote their own music, except perhaps for Buddy Holly.
Atlantic Records began to record and release stereo records. Clarence White 13 and his brother Roland 19 started the Kentucky Colonels to join and expand the tradition of Bluegrass music.
In England, guitar sales reachedunits. This was up from 5, in due, in large part, to the popularity of Lonnie Donegan and Skiffle Music.
Sales were not good initially but the iconic shaped guitar eventually found a home in electric blues. On February 6th, George Harrison was invited to watch the Quarrymen. Harrison joined the band as lead guitarist shortly after. Elvis Presley is inducted into the Army in March for a two-year hitch overseas. The author of poetry, translations, fiction, theatre, art criticism, and film narration is best known for A Coney Island of the Mind New York: New Directions,a collection of poems that has been translated into nine languages, with sales over 1, copies.
Gibson introduced the ES is an attempt to find a middle ground — a warmer tone than a solid body but still capable of producing little or no feedback. They paved the way for the s. He cuts the tour short and is blackballed by American radio and television. Billboard magazine begins the Hotexpanding the Pop Charts to allow more records to become certified hits.
The power chord first appears in records by guitarists Link Wray and Eddie Cochran. During the summer, some of the Gibson Goldtop models were replaced with a new sunburst finish. It had been brewing with French involvement for years but saw a ramp-up of American advisors and servicemen in Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens and J.
Holly had assembled a band for the winter tour made up of Tommy Allsup on guitar, Carl Bunch on drums and Waylon Jennings on bass, to be billed as The Crickets.
Waylon Jennings gave up his seat on the small plane to go by bus. Alan Freed is its main target and becomes its biggest casualty, as he is found guilty and taken off the air as a result. Radio stations respond by voluntarily putting severe restrictions on what they will play, including widely adopting the Top 40 format which limits how many songs are approved for airing. The rock instrumental has its biggest year ever in response to rock music facing bans for lyrical content.
The concept was to elevate the music of the people to greater public prominence. Byhe had freed himself of a decade-long heroin addiction and emerged a stronger musician. His sound had evolved to include a Harmon mute wah-wah mute held close to the microphone. He frequently chose songs from the Great American Songbook as starting points for improvisation. Hard bop was a departure from cool jazz with a harder beat and blues-inspired roots. Inthe US House of Representatives voted to 0, passing a resolution to honor Kind of Blue as a national treasure.
During a recording session for the US Armed Services in New York City at the Birdland nightclub, he stepped outside the front of the club during a break. Kilduff grabbed him and put him under arrest. Witnesses said the policeman used a nightstick to punch Davis in the stomach without provocation.
Two detectives held back the crowd while a third came up behind Davis and beat him about the head. Davis was taken to jail and charged with assaulting an officer. He was then taken to the hospital and received five stitches. By Januaryhe was acquitted of disorderly conduct and third-degree assault.
It will eventually become the most successful black-owned and operated company in American history, not just in music, with million records sold.
Gibson shipped Les Paul Bursts during the year. After being fired from the club, the girl was arrested on a prostitution charge and Berry was arrested under the Mann Act. By the late s, folk music was surging and McCarthyism fading. A recent fatal human disease was identified and carefully documented in the Congo.
It would later become known throughout the world as HIV. The drummer for the tour was Tommy Moore. The Beatles invited Pete Best to become their drummer on August 12th. On November 21st, Harrison was deported for having lied to the German authorities about his age.
A week later, after setting a condom on fire which they had hung on a nail at the Bambi Kino where they had been livingMcCartney and Pete Best were arrested for arson and deported. The reunited group played an engagement on December 17th at the Casbah Club, with Chas Newby on bass.
Gibson ships Les Paul Bursts before ceasing production of the model. The model is described in the Gibson catalog as the Les Paul Standard. In September, the FCC banned Payola — the common practice of record companies paying radio disc jockeys to play their new releases. The payment was not always in dollars. Searle is the first and only pharmaceutical company to sell an oral contraceptive and gain a lucrative monopoly.
The pharmaceutical industry suddenly awoke to the substantial market for effective contraception and 13 major drug companies nine of them American began work to develop their own versions of the Pill. The sexual revolution began. Kennedy by Executive Order Eichmann was charged with 15 counts of war crimes, crimes against humanity, crimes against the Jewish people and membership in a hostile organization.
The charges accused Eichmann of being responsible for the enslavement, starvation, persecution, transportation and murder of millions of Jews as well as the deportation of hundreds of thousands of Poles and Gypsies. The trial was intended to shed light on the horror and reality of the Holocaust.
The resulting press helped educate the world about the Third Reich. Three judges found Eichmann guilty on all 15 counts. On December 15th, Eichmann was sentenced to death see April 12th: The Soviets launched the first man into space. On the spacecraft Vostok 1, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to enter space and the first to orbit the Earth.
The late s and early s saw the wide accessibility of the Internet and new technologies for it, such as Java and Adobe Flash. While Adobe Flash was initially intended to be a tool to develop fully interactive websites, Flash lost favor in this area but individual developers found ways to use the tool for animations and games, aided by the ease of the development tools for this purpose.
The website Newgrounds was created to help people share and promote their Flash works. While these Flash games lacked the complexity of gameplay of games on consoles or computers, they were available for free and sparked creative ideas that would carry forward; for example, Crush the Castle directly inspired the popular mobile game Angry Birdswhile the founder of Newgrounds, Tom Fulp, teamed with animator Dan Paladin to create Alien Hominid as a Flash game, which they later built upon into a more complete title Castle Crashers under the studio The Behemoth.
Flash and other in-browser platforms created a new trend in casual gameswith limited complexity and designed for shortened or impromptu play sessions. The biggest hit was The Sims by Maxiswhich went on to become the best selling computer game of all time, surpassing Myst. As social media sites started to grow, the first social network games emerged on social platforms.
These games, often based on casual game mechanics, typically rely on users to interact with their friends via the social media site as to gain a form of "energy" to continue to play. Happy Farmreleased in China inis considered the first such major social game. Separately, gaming on mobile devices had limited success until the mids. Nokia had installed Snake onto its line of mobile phones since the Nokia in As phone technology improved, a Japanese mobile phone culture grew around with games ranging from puzzle games and virtual pet titles that use camera phone and fingerprint scanner technologies to 3D games with PlayStation -quality graphics.
Older arcade-style games became very popular on mobile phones, which were an ideal platform for arcade-style games designed for shorter play sessions. Namco made attempts to introduce mobile games to Europe in Aroundthe first smartphones were available on the market, which offered data connectivity alongside phone services.
Carriers licensed games to be made available for sale on a storefront, but this did not catch on due to the disparate storefronts and differences between phone models, and the games could not be as sophisticated as on consoles or handhelds due to limited hardware on the smartphones. With the App Store, developers, once signed up as a partner, could then develop and publish their own apps through the store.
This allowed developers of any size to participate in the App Store marketplace. The use of Apple's and Google's app storefronts for gaming applications quickly took off with early successes like Angry Birds and Bejeweled. A further rise in the popularity of mobile games was from China, where most residents do not own computers and where imported consoles were banned by the government starting inthough eventually eased in and completely lifted in Mobile games also proved popular and financially-successful there as well, with a ten-fold growth of China's video game market between and Coupled with the growth of mobile games was the introduction of microconsoleslow-cost home consoles that used the Android operating system as to take advantage of the large library of games already made for mobile devices.
Sony has since exited the handheld console arena. These new approaches further extended game budgets. As a result of the larger budgets and better technology, new narrative-driven games emerged to incorporate larger stories as more direct components of gameplay, such as by eliminating prerendered cut scenes in favor of scenes carried out within the game's engine.
Hobbyist and homebrew game development had been in place since the first home computers in the late s and s, with the shift to shareware by individuals and small development teams in the s, but the importance of console gaming and the rise of 3D game technology had made it initially difficult for individual developers to participate competitively in game development.
The growth of AAA games with large budgets further made publishers risk-adverse to support smaller games with non-standard or more experimental gameplay. Independent games, or indie games, gained a significant share of the market in the latter half of the s that continued into the s, and generally seen as a result of the industry looking for innovation beyond the safe, non-risky approaches that AAA development had centered on.
Sony and Nintendo followed suit with similar indie game publishing programs in the early s. The new decade saw the rising interest in the possibility of the next generation of consoles being developed in keeping with the traditional industry model of a five-year console life cycle.
However, in the industry there was believed to be a lack of desire for another race to produce such a console. Microsoft made the unit smaller and quieter, while also installing a GB hard drive and built-in The OnLive cloud-based gaming system was one of the first cloud gaming services in the industry.
Cathode ray tube-based display units had begun to phase out in the s, replaced by inexpensive flat-screen televisions and monitors which had far higher screen resolution and refresh rates. Game engines such as Unreal, Unity, and DirectX added support for improved texture mapping to support high-resolution textures to give photorealistic graphics in games.
Microsoft and Sony both released their next console generations, the Xbox One and PlayStation 4in Both expanded on features from their previous consoles with the added support for high-resolution graphics, and more support for digital distribution of content with additional storage space.
The Xbox One had an initial flubbed launch, as Microsoft wanted to require users to be always connected to the Internet, along with persistent use of the Kinect motion sensor, which in turn would have given certain benefits to players.
However, these decisions were met with negative feedback in the months prior to release over their privacy concerns, and Microsoft revamped their policies. The Kinect, though initially bundled with the Xbox One, was made optional, and a year after launch, Microsoft opted to end Kinect's production for the Xbox One. Nintendo still kept to its own path. The company had felt that the Wii may have lost a portion of core gamers and developed the Wii U to draw this group back in.
The Wii U, released inincluded a tablet-like Wii U GamePad that included controls and a touchscreen display that acted as a second screen during gameplay, along with support for Wii Remote controllers, and included backward compatibility with Wii games.
The Wii U was a commercial failure for Nintendo following the Wii; while the Wii had sold more than million units, the Wii U only sold about 13 million in its lifetime. Nintendo attributed this to both the marketing of the Wii U which failed to make clear the purpose of the GamePad and which made consumers believe it was just another tablet system, and to the lack of third-party support on the console which dropped off quickly once initial console sale numbers were obtained.
Nintendo had already been working on its next console once the Wii U had been released, but pushed ahead as to get another console to release sooner to financially recover from the Wii U. The Switch uses detachable Joy-Con which function as both regular controllers and as motion-sensing devices like the Wii Remote. Alongside the Switch, Nintendo sought out third-party support for the console from both triple-A studios and indie developers.
The Switch proved to be very successful, as ofit is Nintendo's second-best selling home console after the Wii, and helped Nintendo regain position in the hardware market.
The handheld market began to wane in the s as mobile gaming supplanted it. Nintendo continued to refine the DS line; it released the Nintendo 3DS inwhich included a screen with a autostereoscopic display as to create a 3D effect without the need for special glasses. Sony released the PlayStation Vita in as a successor to the PSP, which included a front touch screen and a back-facing touchpad in addition to existing control.
Nintendo, on the other hand, released a modified version of the Switch, the Nintendo Switch Litein The Switch Lite a lower-cost version that directly integrates the Joy-Con into the unit and removes other features, as to create a device that supports handheld gameplay directly, but otherwise fully compatible with the existing Switch library. In personal computers, the graphics card market centered on the progress made by industry leaders NVidia and AMDwho also supplied GPUs for the new consoles.
Starting in the late s, the power of these GPU cards were being used by cryptocurrency "miners", as they were comparatively lower cost than other computing hardware for the same purposes, and created a run on GPU cards that inflated prices and card shortages over extended periods.
Compared to the traditional hard disk drive HDD which used electromechanical parts, SSD drives have no mechanical componentry and are capable of much higher data throughput, which made them popular options for computers designed for video games. Until the s, online play for most platforms were limited to players on that same platform, though some games such as Final Fantasy XI had experimented with limited models. As new gaming consoles converged in design to personal computers and with common middleware libraries, it became technically feasible to allow for cross-platform play between different platforms, but business objectives by Microsoft, Nintendo, and Sony, looking to maintain control on their online services, initially rejected this, most notably by Sony who had stated they wanted to maintain a family-friendly environment for its online services.
Fortnite had quickly gained popularity in its first few months of release, and Epic had been able to prove the ease which cross-platform play could be implemented between the Xbox, Windows, and mobile platforms with its backend libraries. Nintendo followed by allowing cross-play on the Switch, and eventually, by Sony agreed to allow selected games such as Fortnite to have cross-platform play. The first cloud gaming services emerged in These services allowed players to play games where the processing power was performed on a computer system at a hosted location, while the game's output and player's input were sent to that system over the Internet, using the power of cloud computing.
This eliminated the need for a costly console or dedicated gaming computer for players. Early services like OnLive and Gaikai showed that cloud gaming was possible but was very much tied to the player's latencyas a slow network could easily stall the game's performance. Cloud gaming became more refined in the s as total network capacity around the world increased with higher bandwidths made available to consumers, in addition to new technologies to try to overcome the latency issue.
Sony acquired both OnLive and Gaikai in the mid s, and used the former as the basis for its PlayStation Now cloud gaming service, allowing players to play older PlayStation games on newer consoles. With game development budgets for triple-A games growing larger, developers and publishers looked for ways to gain additional revenue for games beyond the first sale of the game.
Multiple factors from the prior decade including the growth of the mobile game market and the introduction of in-app purchases, subscription-based games such as MMOs, and the digital distribution market, led to new avenues for recurring revenue by treating games as a service GaaS.
Larger expansions and downloadable content had existed prior to the mids, and players had become accustomed to the subscription-based model for MMOs by that point. While mostly a cosmetic item in the game, the armor pack was one of the most popular items sold in for Oblivion byand cemented the idea of microtransactions.
Games that followed Oblivion found ways to include additional microtransaction content to games to extend how much money a single title could earn. This approach was heavily criticized by consumers and players, and abandoned by Instead publishers offered the season pass model, first appearing in games like L.
Noire and Mortal Kombat. Without a season pass, players would still have access to all fundamental features of a game including online play, but the season pass gave access to all planned expanded content for single player modes and new characters or items and cosmetics for online modes, all planned to be released typically within a year's period, typically at a discount compared to purchasing each individually.
A game could thus offer repeating season passes year after year and generate revenue this way. Within a battle pass are a number of in-game items that a player can earn at various levels of the battle pass, but requires them to complete in-game challenges as to earn the levels within the pass. Some battle passes include a free tier of items but most incorporate a tier that requires purchase of the pass. Battle passes can be cycled like season passes, offering a fresh set of items with new challenges on a regular basis, and supply recurring revenue for a game.
From mobile and free-to-play games, gacha games had grown popular in Japan by the early s, based on the capsule toy vending machine concept, with the earliest known system being in MapleStory.
In-game, players would earn currency that they could use to earn a random draw from a set of items based on a preset rarities, often with the goal to collect all of a one set of items to gain a powerful in-game reward.
While players could earn more currency through in-game actions, typically by grindingthey could also can currency by spending real-world funds into the game. The gacha concept expanded out into loot boxes through the Chinese game ZT Onlineand in Western games like FIFA 09 and Team Fortress 2 in the early s; players would earn loot boxes through in-game actions, or which could be purchased through real-world funds, and when opened would contain a variety of items, randomly selected based on rarity.
Bynumerous high-profile games had included loot box mechanics, but this drew attention of world governments and policy makers, fearing that loot boxes were too similar to gambling, since real-world money could be used to purchase them. Since many of these video games were being aimed at minors, some countries had passed laws banning or restricting games with loot box mechanics due to their gambling nature.
China's impact in monetization played a key role during this period, which exceeded over million players by the mids. While the console ban had been lifted, China's government still required that imported hardware be sold through Chinese companies, and requires Chinese operators to manage online games as to uphold the country's laws on censorship and gameplay limitations for minors.
Chinese companies that were already publishing games within the country began to make partnerships or other arrangements with foreign firms to help bring their games and hardware into the company through the complex approvals process. Such companies include NetEase and Perfect Worldbut the largest mover had been Tencentwhich made numerous investments into foreign firms over the s, which included full acquisition of Riot Games and partial ownership of Supercell and Epic Gamesas well as minority stake in publishers UbisoftActivision Blizzard and Paradox Interactive.
In exchange, Tencent had helped these companies refine their monetization approaches using their past experience with their own games. Virtual reality VR systems for video games had long been seen as a target for VR technology and had been in development as early as the s, but had been hampered by their high cost and impractical for consumer sales. One of the initial attempts, Nintendo's Virtual Boy inused a monochromatic stereoscopic display to simulate 3D, but the unit was impractical and failed to gain developers, leading it to be a commercial failure for Nintendo.
Breakthroughs in consumer-ready VR hardware came in the early s with the development of the Oculus Rift by Palmer Luckey. Valve later developed its own VR hardware line, the Valve Indexreleased in Half-Life: Alyx brought several new ideas for integrating first-person shooter gaming into a VR app, and spurred sales of the Index.
Augmented reality AR games, where the game takes a real-time video game image and renders additional graphics atop it, had also existed before the s. Most of the games were more experimental since cameras were fixed and limited what interactions could be made. As handheld consoles including the PSP and the Nintendo DS line, and mobile phones incorporated video camera capabilities, new AR possibilities opened up on portable devices. Initial games were still more Silent Generation - Turned Away - Demo 1998 (Cassette) and toys without comprehensive gameplay loops.
Significant improvements in technology also furthered the ability to display highly detailed textures, allowing for photorealism in rendered video game scenes at high resolutions and high frame rates.
These changes necessitated larger storage space for texture memory on the hardware and greater bandwidth between the storage memory and graphic processor. Both new consoles included specialized SSD options designed to provide high-bandwidth storage options, which had the added benefit of virtually eliminating loading times in many games particular those featuring in-game streaming for open world games.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Aspect of history. Early history of video games Early mainframe games. History of video game consoles Console war 1st generation — 2nd generation — Video game crash of 3rd generation — 4th generation — 5th generation — 6th generation — 7th generation — 8th generation —present 9th generation —present.
Arcade video games. History of arcade video games Golden age of arcade video games Timeline of arcade video game history. Personal computer. History of personal computer games. Mobile games. History of mobile games. Virtual reality. History of virtual reality games. Cloud gaming. History of cloud gaming. Other platforms. Browser game Emulation. List of genres History of Eastern role-playing video games History of Western role-playing video games History of online games History of massively multiplayer online games.
List of video games in development. Main articles: Early history of video games and Early mainframe games. Main article: s in video games. See also: First generation of video game consolesHistory of arcade gamesand History of arcade video games. Main article: First generation of video game consoles. Main article: Golden age of arcade video games. Main article: Second generation of video game consoles. Main article: Video game crash of See also: History of massively multiplayer online games.
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Main articles: Sixth generation of video game consoles and Seventh generation of video game consoles. Main article: History of online games. See also: Browser gameCasual gameand Social network game. See also: Mobile gaming. See also: AAA video game industry and Indie game. Main article: Eighth generation of video game consoles. See also: Cross-platform play and Cloud gaming. See also: Video game monetization. See also: Virtual reality and Augmented reality.
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E.B. - Sicherhatesystem - Chyba (Cassette), Bourrée - Händel* - Rundfunk-Sinfonie-Orchester Berlin* , Dirigent: Helmut Koch - Wassermusik (Vinyl, Tug The Tapeworm - The Almighty Punchdrunk - Music For Them Asses (CD, Album), The Strangest Thing (Recorded Live At The BBC Radio Theatre 8th October 1996), Wagon Train - The Sons Of The Pioneers - Down Memory Trail With The Sons Of The Pioneers (Cassette), Tool (2) - Ænima (Vinyl, LP, Album), Le Carnaval Des Animaux - N° 11. Pianistes-N° 14.Finale - Orchestre Symphonique de Philadelphie*, Lé, Scuola - Tear Me Down - Morire Di Tolleranza (Vinyl, Album), Clouds Instead Of Heads - Kompis - Clouds Instead Of Heads (Vinyl), Rannaton - Tiktak - Sinkut 99-07 (CD), Hello - Tell Him (Vinyl), The Incident - Porcupine Tree - Octane Twisted (CD, Album)