It also participates in the Schengen Group named after the Luxembourg village of Schengen where the agreements were signed. The Secretariat of the European Parliament is located in Luxembourg, but the Parliament usually meets in Brussels and sometimes in Strasbourg. The professional head of the army is the Chief of Defensewho answers to the minister and holds the rank of general. Being a landlocked country, Luxembourg has no navy. The army has also participated in humanitarian relief missions such as setting up refugee camps for Kurds and providing emergency supplies to Albania.
Luxembourg is one of the smallest countries in Europe, and ranked th in size of all the independent countries of the world ; the country is about 2, square kilometers sq mi in size, and measures 82 km 51 mi long and 57 km 35 mi wide.
The northern third of the country is known as the Oeslingand forms part of the Ardennes. It is dominated by hills and low mountains, including the Kneiff near Wilwerdange which is the highest point, at meters 1, ft.
The region is sparsely populated, with only one town Wiltz with a population of more than four thousand people. The southern two-thirds of the country is called the Gutlandand is more densely populated than the Oesling. It is also more diverse and can be divided into five geographic sub-regions. The Luxembourg plateauin south-central Luxembourg, is a large, flat, sandstone formation, and the site of the city of Luxembourg.
Little Switzerlandin the east of Luxembourg, has craggy terrain and thick forests. The Moselle valley is the lowest-lying region, running along the southeastern border. The Red Landsin the far south and southwest, are Luxembourg's industrial heartland and home to many of Luxembourg's largest towns. The border between Luxembourg and Germany is formed by three rivers: the Moselle, the Sauerand the Our. Other major rivers are the Alzettethe Attertthe Clerveand the Wiltz.
The valleys of the mid-Sauer and Attert form the border between the Gutland and the Oesling. According to the Environmental Performance IndexLuxembourg is one of the world's best performers in environmental protection, ranking 4th out of assessed countries. Luxemburg wants to increase fivefold its organic farming. The summers are warm and winters cool. Luxembourg's stable and high-income market economy features moderate growth, low inflation, and a high level of innovation.
The industrial sector, which was dominated by steel until the s, has since diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. During the past decades, growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel production. Services, especially banking and financeaccount for the majority of the economic output.
Luxembourg is the world's second largest investment fund center after the United Statesthe most important private banking center in the Eurozone and Europe's leading center for reinsurance companies.
Moreover, the Luxembourg government has aimed to attract Internet startups, with Skype and Amazon being two of the many Internet companies that Album) shifted their regional headquarters to Luxembourg. In Aprilconcern about Luxembourg's banking secrecy laws, as well as its reputation as a tax havenled to its being added to a "gray list" of nations with questionable banking arrangements by the G In response, the country soon after adopted OECD standards on exchange of information and was subsequently added into the category of "jurisdictions that have substantially implemented the internationally agreed tax standard".
In early Novemberjust days after becoming head of the European Commissionthe Luxembourg's former Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker was hit by media disclosures—derived from a document leak known as Luxembourg Leaks —that Luxembourg under his premiership had turned into a major European center of corporate tax avoidance.
Agriculture employed about 2. Luxembourg has especially close trade and financial ties to Belgium and the Netherlands see Beneluxand as a member of the EU it enjoys the advantages of the open European market. Treasury securities.
The debt to Untitled - Daniel Johnston - 6/6/1999 Luxenburg was Luxembourg has road, rail and air transport facilities and services. The road network has been significantly modernized in recent years with km mi  of motorways connecting the capital to adjacent countries. The advent of the high-speed TGV link to Paris has led to renovation of the city's railway station and a new passenger terminal at Luxembourg Airport was opened in The number of cars per persons amount to On 29 February Luxembourg became the first country to introduce no-charge public transportation which will be almost completely funded through public expenditure.
The telecommunications industry in Luxembourg is liberalized and the electronic communications networks are significantly developed. Competition between the different operators is guaranteed by the legislative framework Paquet Telecom  of the Government of which transposes the European Telecom Directives into Luxembourgish law.
This encourages the investment in networks and services. Luxembourg has modern and widely deployed optical fiber and cable networks throughout the country. Some 20 data centers    are operating in Luxembourg. The people of Luxembourg are called Luxembourgers. Another 6. Since the beginning of the Yugoslav warsLuxembourg has seen many immigrants from Bosnia and HerzegovinaMontenegroand Serbia. Annually, over Album), new immigrants arrive in Luxembourg, mostly from the EU states, as well as Eastern Europe.
There were an estimated 5, illegal immigrants in Luxembourg in As determinded by law sinceLuxembourg has only one national languagewhich is Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is considered a Franconian language specific to the local population which is partially mutually intelligible with the neighboring High Germanbut which also includes more than 5, words of French origin.
However, in addition to Luxembourgish, both French and German are also used in administrative and judicial matters, making all 3 of them administrative languages of Luxembourg. Each of the three official languages is used as the primary language in certain spheres of everyday life, without being exclusive. Most official business and written communication is carried out in French, which is also the language mostly used for public communication, with written official statements, advertising displays and road signs generally being in French.
Due to the historical influence of the Napoleonic Code on the legal system of the Grand Duchy, French is also the sole language of the legislation and generally the preferred language of the government, administration and justice.
The parliamentary debates are however mostly conducted in Luxembourgish, whereas the written government communications and the official documents e. German is Untitled - Daniel Johnston - 6/6/1999 Luxenburg often used in much of the media along with French and is considered by most Luxembourgers their second language.
This is mostly due to the high similarity of German to Luxembourgish but also because it is the first language taught to children in primary school language of alphabetization. Due to the large community of Portuguese origin, the Portuguese language is de facto fairly present in Luxembourg, though it remains limited to the relationships inside this community; although Portuguese does not have any official status, the administration sometimes holds certain informative documents available in Portuguese.
Luxembourg is a secular statebut the state recognizes certain religions as officially mandated religions. This gives the state a hand in religious administration and appointment of clergy, in exchange for which the state pays certain running costs and wages. Sinceit has been illegal for the government to collect statistics on religious beliefs or practices. Luxembourg's education system is trilingual: the first years of primary school are in Luxembourgish, before changing to German; while in secondary school, the language of instruction changes to French.
The past two decades have highlighted the growing importance of English in several sectors, in particular the financial sector. Portuguese, the language of the largest immigrant community, is also spoken by large segments of the population, but by relatively few from outside the Portuguese-speaking community.
The University of Luxembourg is the only university based in Luxembourg. InLuxembourg School of Businessa graduate business school, has been created through private initiative and has received the accreditation from the Ministry of Higher Education and Research of Luxembourg in Luxembourg has been overshadowed by the culture of its neighbors.
It retains a number of folk traditions, having been for much of its history a profoundly rural country. There are several notable museums, located mostly in the capital. Editor and author Hugo Gernsbackwhose publications crystallized the concept of science fictionwas born in Luxembourg City. Movie star Loretta Young was of Luxembourgish descent. Luxembourg was a founding participant of the Eurovision Song Contestand participated every year between andwith the exception of It won the competition a total of five times,and and hosted the contest in,andbut only nine of its 38 entries were performed by Luxembourgish artists.
Luxembourg was the first city to be named European Capital of Culture twice. The first time was in The event was an attempt to promote mobility and the exchange of ideas, crossing borders physically, psychologically, artistically and emotionally. Luxembourg was represented at the World Expo in Shanghai, China, from 1 May to 31 October with its own pavilion. It represented Luxembourg as the "Green Heart in Europe".
Unlike most countries in Europe, sports in Luxembourg are not concentrated upon a particular national sportbut instead encompass a number of sports, both team and individual.
Despite the lack of a central sporting focus, overpeople in Luxembourg, out of a total population of near ,—, are licensed members of one sports federation or another. The arena is used for basketballhandballgymnasticsand volleyballincluding the final of the Women's European Volleyball Championship.
Luxembourg cuisine reflects its position on the border between the Latin and Germanic worlds, being heavily influenced by the cuisines of neighboring France and Germany. More recently, it has been enriched by its many Italian and Portuguese immigrants. Most native Luxembourg dishes, consumed as the traditional daily fare, share roots in the country's folk dishes the same as in neighboring Germany.
Luxembourg sells the most alcohol in Europe per capita. The main languages of media in Luxembourg are French and German. The newspaper with the largest circulation is the German-language daily Luxemburger Wort. In addition there are both English and Portuguese radio and national print publications, but accurate audience figures are difficult to gauge since the national media survey by ILRES Germany (CDr conducted in French.
Due to a law that established a special tax scheme for audiovisual investment, the film and co-production in Luxembourg has grown steadily.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in Western Europe. This article is about the country. For the city, see Luxembourg City. For other uses, see Luxembourg disambiguation. Coat of arms. Royal anthem : " De Wilhelmus " a. Not the same as the Het Wilhelmus of the Netherlands. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 May Interactive map showing the border of Luxembourg.
Main article: History of Luxembourg. Main article: Celtic Luxembourg. Main article: County of Luxemburg. Main article: Duchy of Luxemburg. See also: Fortress of Luxembourg. Main articles: Politics of Luxembourg and Law of Luxembourg. Main articles: Cantons of Luxembourg and Communes of Luxembourg.
Further information: Administrative divisions of Luxembourg. Partitions and Cantons of Luxembourg. There have been three partitions of Luxembourg between and Together, they reduced the territory of Luxembourg from 10, km 2 4, sq mi to the present-day area of 2, km 2 sq mi. The remainder forms parts of modern day BelgiumFrance, and Germany. Main article: Foreign relations of Luxembourg.
Main article: Luxembourg Army. Main article: Geography of Luxembourg. Main article: Economy of Luxembourg. Main article: Transport in Luxembourg. See also: History of rail transport in Luxembourg. Main article: Telecommunications in Luxembourg. Main article: Demographics of Luxembourg. Largest cities or towns in Luxembourg Main article: Religion in Luxembourg.
See also: List of secondary schools in Luxembourg. Main articles: Health in Luxembourg and Healthcare in Luxembourg. Main articles: Culture of Luxembourg and National symbols of Luxembourg.
Main article: Sport in Luxembourg. Further information: Luxembourgish Sportspeople of the Year. Main article: Cuisine of Luxembourg. Main article: List of Luxembourgers. Luxembourg portal. Retrieved 11 December European Commission.
Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 19 December International Monetary Fund. Album) 8 January The song was played on an independent radio station in Lisbon on 24 April, and was one of two secret signals which alerted the rebel captains and soldiers to begin the Carnation Revolution against the Estado Novo regime.
Eurovision Song Contest is broadcast across five continents. Follow Eurovisionworld. Eurovisionworld on Facebook. After the bearded lady Conchita Wurst won ina Russian politician said: "The result showed supporters of European integration their European future - a bearded girl".
The average annual inflation rate has been 2. All values are equivalent in terms of purchasing power, which means that for each year the same goods or services could be bought with the indicated amount of money.
All calculations are performed in the local currency EUR and using 6 decimal digits. Results show only up to 2 decimal digits to favour readability. Inflation data is provided by governments and international institutions on a monthly basis. Today's values were obtained by estimating figures from recent trends. There are several ways to calculate the time value of money.
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