Reich responded with a page letter in which he tried to change Einstein's mind. He wrote that in all these circumstances the temperature difference remained, and was in fact more marked in the open air. Einstein replied that he could not devote any further time to the matter and asked that his name not be misused for advertising purposes. Reich believed that Einstein's change of heart was part of a conspiracy of some kind, perhaps related to the communists or prompted by the rumours that Reich was ill.
Reich published the correspondence in as The Einstein Affair. Reich lost his position at the New School in Mayafter writing to its director, Alvin Johnsonto say he had saved several lives in secret experiments with the accumulator. Johnson was aware of Reich's claims that he could cure cancer, and told him the New School was not an appropriate institution for the work.
Reich was also evicted from Kessel Street after his neighbours complained about the animal experiments. On December 12,five days after the attack on Pearl Harbor and a day after Germany declared it was at war with the United StatesReich was arrested in his home at 2 a. After threatening to go on hunger Elektro Frogs he was released, on 5 January, but his name remained on the "key figures list" of the Enemy Alien Control Unit, which meant he was placed under surveillance. Turner writes that it seems Reich was the victim of mistaken identity; there was a William Reich who ran a bookstore in New Jersey, which was used to distribute Communist material.
This German immigrant described himself as the Associate Professor of Medical Psychology, Director of the Orgone Institute, President and research physician of the Wilhelm Reich Foundation and discoverer of biological or life energy.
A security investigation was begun to determine the extent of Reich's communist commitments. A board of Alien Enemy Hearing judged that Dr. Reich was not a threat to the security of the U. Ina security investigation concluded that neither the Orgone Project nor any of its staff were engaged in subversive activities or were in violation of any statute within the jurisdiction of the FBI. Calling it Orgonon, he started spending summers there, and had a one-room cabin built ina laboratory ina larger cabin inand an observatory in Inhe decided to live there year-round, and in May that year moved from New York with Ilse, their son, Peter, and Reich's daughter Eva, with the idea of creating a centre for the study of orgone.
Several colleagues moved there with him, including two physicians with an interest in orgone, and Lois Wyvell, who ran the Orgone Press Institute. UntilReich enjoyed largely uncritical attention from the press in the United States. One journal, Psychosomatic Medicinehad called orgone a "surrealist creation", but his psychoanalytic work had been discussed in the Journal of the American Medical Association and the American Journal of PsychiatryThe Nation had given his writing positive reviews, and he was listed in American Men of Science.
His reputation took a sudden downturn in April and Maywhen articles by Mildred Edie Brady were published in Harper's and The New Republicthe latter entitled "The Strange Case of Wilhelm Reich", with the subhead, "The man who blames both neuroses and cancer on unsatisfactory sexual activities has been repudiated by only one Elektro Frogs journal. Of Reich she wrote: "Orgone, named after the sexual orgasm, is, according to Reich, a cosmic energy.
It is, in fact, the cosmic energy. Reich has not only discovered it; he has seen it, demonstrated it and named a town—Orgonon, Maine—after it. Here he builds accumulators of it, which are rented out to patients, who presumably derive 'orgastic potency' from it.
He issued a press release, but no one published it. In JulyDr. The FDA assigned an investigator to the case, who learned that Reich had built accumulators. The FDA concluded that they were dealing with a "fraud of the first magnitude". According to Sharaf, the FDA suspected a sexual racket of some kind; questions were asked about the women associated with orgonomy and "what was done with them".
Meetings were held in the basement of his house in Forest Hills. Turner wrote that several children who were treated by OIRC therapists later said they had been sexually abused by the therapists, although not by Reich. One woman said she was assaulted by one of Reich's associates when she was five years old.
Children were asked to stand naked in front of Reich and a group of 30 therapists in his basement, while Reich described the children's "blockages". The sexual allegations apart, several people discussed how the vegetotherapy had hurt them physically as children, as therapists pressed hard on the body to loosen muscular armour. Reich's son, Peter, wrote in his autobiography, Book of Dreams about the pain this had caused him.
Reich and Ilse Ollendorff divorced in Septemberostensibly because he thought she had an affair. She continued working with him for another three years. Even after the divorce, he suspected her of having affairs, and persuaded her to sign confessions about her feelings of fear and hatred toward him, which he locked away in the archives of his Orgone Institute.
He wrote several documents denouncing her, while having an affair himself with Lois Wyvell, who ran the Orgone Institute Press. InReich said he had discovered another energy that he called deadly orgone radiation DORaccumulations of which played a role in desertification.
He designed a "cloudbuster", rows of foot aluminium pipes mounted on a mobile platform, connected to cables that were inserted into water. He believed that it could unblock orgone energy in the atmosphere and cause rain. Turner described it as an "orgone box turned inside out". He conducted dozens of experiments with the cloudbuster, calling his research "Cosmic Orgone Engineering".
During a drought intwo farmers in Maine offered to pay him if he could make it rain to save their blueberry crop. Reich used the cloudbuster on the morning of July 6, and according to Bangor's Daily News —based on an account from an anonymous eyewitness who was probably Peter Reich—rain began to fall that evening.
The crop survived, the farmers declared themselves satisfied, and Reich received his fee. Over the years the FDA interviewed physicians, Reich's students and his patients, asking about the orgone accumulators. The attention of the FDA triggered belligerent responses from Reich, who called them "HiGS" hoodlums in government and the tools of red fascists. He developed a delusion that he had powerful friends in government, including President Eisenhowerwho he believed would protect him, and that the U.
Air Force was flying over Orgonon to make sure that he was all right. Sharaf writes that Reich detested unannounced visitors; he had once chased some people away with a gun Elektro Frogs for looking at an adjacent property. He told the inspectors they had to read his work before he would interact with them, and ordered them to leave. In Februarythe United States Attorney for the District of Maine filed a page complaint seeking a permanent injunction, under Sections and of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Actto prevent interstate shipment of orgone accumulators and to ban promotional literature.
In a letter to Judge John D. Clifford, Jr. My factual position in the case as well as in the world of science of today does not permit me to enter the case against the Food and Drug Administration, since such action would, in my mind, imply admission of the authority of this special branch of the government to pass judgment on primordial, pre-atomic cosmic orgone energy.
I, therefore, rest the case in full confidence in your hands. The injunction was granted by default on March 19, The judge ordered Elektro Frogs all accumulators, parts and instructions be destroyed, and that several of Reich's books that mentioned orgone be withheld. According to Turner, the injunction triggered a further deterioration in Reich's mental health.
From at least earlyhe came to believe that the planet was under attack by UFOs, or "energy alphas", as he called them. He said he often saw them flying over Orgonon—shaped like thin cigars with windows—leaving streams of black Deadly Orgone Radiation in their wake, which he believed the aliens were scattering to destroy the Earth. He and his son would spend their nights searching for UFOs through telescopes and binoculars, and when they believed they had found one would roll out the cloudbuster to suck the energy out of it.
Reich claimed he had shot several of them down. Armed with two cloudbusters, they fought what Reich called a "full-scale interplanetary battle" in Arizona, where he had rented a house as a base station. In lateReich began an affair with Grethe Hoff, a former patient. Hoff was married to another former student and patient of his, the psychologist Myron Sharafwho decades later, with his Fury on Earthbecame Reich's main biographer. Hoff and Sharaf had had their first child the year before Hoff left him for Reich; the marriage was never repaired although the affair had ended by June Walter Roner.
While Reich was in Arizona in Mayone of his associates sent an accumulator part through the mail to another state, in violation of the injunction, after an FDA inspector posing as a customer requested it. Michael Silvert, were charged with contempt of court ; Silvert had been looking after the inventory in Reich's absence. Representing himself during the hearing, he admitted the violation but pleaded not guilty and hinted at conspiracies.
During a recess the judge apparently suggested a psychiatric evaluation to Reich's ex-wife, Ilse Ollendorff, but this was not communicated to Reich. The jury found him guilty on 7 Mayand he was sentenced to two years' imprisonment. On June 5,two FDA officials arrived at Orgonon to supervise the destruction of the accumulators.
Most of them had been sold by that time and another 50 were with Silvert in New York, leaving only three accumulators at Orgonon.
The FDA agents were not allowed to destroy them, only to supervise the destruction, so Reich's friends and his son, Peter, chopped them up with axes as the agents watched. On June 26, the agents returned to supervise the destruction of the promotional material, including copies of Reich's books. In England, A. Neill and the poet Herbert Read signed a letter of protest, but it was never published. On July 23 the remaining accumulators in New York were destroyed by S.
Collins and Sons, who had built them. On August 23, six tons of Reich's books, journals and papers were burned in New York, at the Gansevoort incinerator, a public incinerator on 25th Street. Although these had been published in German before Reich ever discussed orgone, he had added mention of it to the English editions, so they were caught by the injunction. The psychiatrist Victor Sobey d. All the expenses and labor had to be provided by the [Orgone Institute] Press.
A huge truck with three to help was hired. I felt like people who, when they are to be executed, are made to dig their own graves first and are then shot and thrown in. We carried box after box of the literature. Reich appealed the lower court's decision in Octoberbut the Court of Appeals upheld it on 11 December. Edgar Hooverdirector of the FBI, requesting a meeting,  and appealed to the Supreme Courtwhich decided on 25 February not to review the case.
Silvert committed suicide in Mayfive months after his release. Hubbard, a psychiatrist who admired Reich, examined him on admission, recording paranoia manifested by delusions of grandiositypersecution, and ideas of reference :.
The patient feels that he has made outstanding discoveries. Gradually over a period of many years he has explained the failure of his ideas in becoming universally accepted by the elaboration of psychotic thinking. This time it was decided that he was mentally competent and that his personality seemed intact, though he might become psychotic when stressed. I am in Lewisburg.
I am calm, certain in my thoughts, and doing mathematics most of the time. I am kind of "above things", fully aware of what is up. Do not worry too much about me, though anything might happen. I know, Pete, that you are strong and decent. At first I thought that you should not visit me here. I do not know. With the world in turmoil I now feel that a boy your age should experience what is coming his way—fully digest it without getting a "belly ache", so to speak, nor getting off the right track of truth, fact, honesty, fair play, and being above board— never a sneak He applied for a presidential pardon in May, to no avail.
Peter visited him in jail several times, where one prisoner said Reich was known as the "flying saucer guy" and the "Sex Box man". His last letter to his son was on 22 Octoberwhen he said he was looking forward to being released on 10 November, having served one third of his sentence. A parole hearing had been scheduled for a few days before that date. He wrote that he and Peter had a date for a meal at the Howard Johnson restaurant near Peter's school. Reich failed to appear for roll call on November 3,and was found at 7 a.
The prison doctor said he had died during the night of "myocardial insufficiency with sudden heart failure". He had left instructions that there was to be no religious ceremony, but that a record should be played of Schubert's "Ave Maria" sung by Marian Andersonand that his granite headstone should read simply: "Wilhelm Reich, Born March 24,Died Time magazine wrote on November 18, Wilhelm Reich, 60, once-famed psychoanalyst, associate and follower of Sigmund Freud, founder of the Wilhelm Reich Foundation, lately better known for unorthodox sex and energy theories; of a heart attack; in Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary, Pa; where he was serving a two-year term for distributing his invention, the "orgone energy accumulator" in violation of the Food and Drug Acta telephone-booth-size device that supposedly gathered energy from the atmosphere, and could cure, while the patient sat inside, common colds, cancer, and impotence.
The psychoanalyst Richard Sterba wrote in that Reich had been a brilliant clinician and teacher in the s; even the older analysts had wanted to attend his technical seminars in Vienna. There were inaccurate rumours from the late s that he had been hospitalized. Similarly, Sandor Rado had Reich as an analyst and in declared him schizophrenic "in the most serious way". Reich's daughter, Lore Reich Rubin, a psychiatristspeculated that he suffered from bipolar disorder and may have been sexually abused as a child.
Sharaf argued that psychoanalysts tended to dismiss as ill anyone from within the fold who had transgressed, and this was never done so relentlessly as with Reich.
His work was split into the pre-psychotic "good" and the post-psychotic "bad", the date of the illness's onset depending on which parts of his work a speaker disliked. Psychoanalysts preferred to see him as sane in the s because of his work on character, while political radicals regarded him as sane in the s because of his Marxist-oriented research.
He wrote in that for years he and his friends regarded Reich as "something akin to a messiah". Bell started teaching a course on Reich in at New York University through its Division of Continuing Study, and it was still being taught at the time Sharaf was writing Reich's biography inmaking it the longest-running course ever taught in that division. Reich continued to influence popular culture after his death. Turner writes that the evil Dr. Durand Durand in the feature film Barbarella seems to be based on Reich; he places Barbarella Jane Fonda in his Excessive Machine so that she would die of pleasure, but rather than killing her the machine burns out.
An orgone accumulator made an appearance as the Orgasmatron in Woody Allen 's comedy feature film Sleeper The use of orgone accumulators, a cloudbuster and representations of Reich's orgone therapy with patients, together with a snapshot of the FDA's hostile actions against Reich were dramatised in a short film called 'It Can Be Done', which was made by British director Jon East in Patti Smith 's "Birdland" on her album Horses is based on Reich's life.
Reich is also a character in the opera Marilyn by Italian composer Lorenzo Ferrero. Kate Bush 's single " Cloudbusting " described Reich's arrest through the eyes of his son, Peter, who wrote his father's story in A Book of Dreams The mainstream scientific community dismissed Reich's orgone theory as pseudoscience. Fromapparently in response to the book burning, the New York publisher Farrar, Straus and Giroux began republishing his major works. In one of his associates, Dr. Elsworth Baker, established the bi-annual Journal of Orgonomystill published as of [update]and in founded the American College of Orgonomy in Princeton, New Jersey.
There was renewed interest in Novemberwhen the Reich archives at the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine at Harvard University were unsealed; Reich had left instructions that his unpublished papers be stored for 50 years after his death. Speaking to Christopher Turner inReich's son, Peter, said of his father, "He was a nineteenth-century scientist; he wasn't a twentieth-century scientist. He didn't practice science the way scientists do today.
He was a nineteenth-century mind who came crashing into twentieth-century America. And boom! Harry Guntrip" James Strick historian of science"In and again inofficers of the U. This was one of the most heinous acts of censorship in U. Christopher Turner"Paul Federn, who had lobbied to exclude Reich from the executive committee since the late twenties, now went so far as to label him a psychopath who slept with all his female patients.
Rain continued throughout the night, and a rainfall of 0. Henry H. Bauer"Reich's personal charisma seems to have misled some number of people into taking his 'science' seriously. His outward behavior was not inconsistent with that of a mainstream scientific investigator.
In the light of everyday common sense rather than of deep technical knowledge, his ideas could seem highly defensible.
For those who lack familiarity with the real science of matters Reich dealt with, why would orgone be less believable than black holes, a bounded yet infinite universe, or "dark matter" Jon E.
Roeckelein Elektro Frogs"The current consensus of scientific opinion is that Reich's orgone theory is basically a psychoanalytic system gone awry, and is an approach that represents something most ludicrous and totally dismissible. For Perls, Lowen and Janov: Sharafp. For orgastic potency and neurosis, Corringtonp. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Austrian-American psychoanalyst. Dobzau, Austria-Hungary present-day DobzauUkraine. Character analysis muscular armour orgastic potency vegetotherapy Freudo-Marxism orgone.
Eva Reich [ de ] — Lore Reich Rubin b. Further information: Orgastic potency. Further information: Die Funktion des Orgasmus. Further information: Character Analysis. Important figures. Important works. Schools of thought. Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. See also. Child psychoanalysis Depth psychology Psychodynamics Psychoanalytic theory. Further information: Vegetotherapy.
Further information: Spontaneous generation and Abiogenesis. Further information: Orgone. Further information: Orgonon. Further information: Cloudbuster. Orgone chair. Prognose und Libidotheorie". Annals of the Orgone Institute— ed. Orgone Energy Bulletin— ed. Raphael eds. Abrahams, Ian. Bauer, Henry H. Blumenfeld, Robert Limelight Editions. Bocian, Bernd. Brady, Mildred Edie April Brady, Mildred Edie 26 May Brian, Denis Tilbudspris 60 Ord. Sure hoder 1,5 kg. Salte twins 1,5 kg.
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