Battery Park - Rations - For Victory (CD)
When the Prussian military further developed the modern staff system, it created a separate career stream for prospective staff officers. Those selected as staff officers wore red stripes on their trousers as a sign of their status, and remained in staff positions throughout their careers. They also served in parallel to commanders, and bore equal responsibility as their counterparts for the success or failure of the formations or units Battery Park - Rations - For Victory (CD) were assigned to.
A staff officer unhappy with a decision made by a commander could take up their grievance with a staff officer of their branch at the next highest HQ. In so doing, Moltke ushered in the modern era of military command, control and management.
Such a war would unite the German states quickly rather than the years or decades it might otherwise take to accomplish. The Germans were divided culturally and politically, but they were united in their hatred for France since the Napoleonic Wars, when France had looted the German states and pressed an estimatedGermans into the French armies. Most countries had kept up citizen militias, usually separate from the regular forces. However, the Prussians had begun to build up large trained reserves which were integrated into the army.
By Bismarck had made Prussia supreme in Germany through victories against Denmark and Austria The creation of a unified German Empire destroyed the balance of power that had been created with the Congress of Vienna after the end of the Napoleonic Wars, and thus Germany became a Great or World Power. Under the new constitution the south German states were essentially annexed by the North German Federation. Although the British did have staff officers as far back as the Crimean War October to Februarystaff work was looked at with great disdain in the British Army and only became acceptable after the terrible hardships of the Crimean war, brought on by disorganisation.
The late s was a period of great change for the British Army, for example, the abolition of the purchase system in a century-old method by which the aristocracy had maintained its control over the Army.
It regulated entry into, and promotion within, the officer corps by purchase, each rank having a rising value. A beneficiary of this abolition was Field Marshal Sir William Robertson who gazetted as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 3rd Dragoons inalthough he entered the Army as a common soldier in the 16th Lancers in November He later went on to pass the staff college exam becoming the first man from the ranks ever to gain entry to the staff college Saddington, Having a pool of officers highly trained in military administration, intelligence analysis, operational planning and logistics was vital to the functioning of any modern army, and such roles were undertaken by staff officers.
However, for much of the s, like many other aspects of the Army, the system for training staff officers had been badly neglected. Nor was the Army run by a general staff system comparable to that developed by continental armies. The result of this neglect had been the disasters associated with the Crimean war, after which there was a gradual improvement in the training of staff officers, yet it took the further disasters during the Boer War half a century later to bring about the introduction of the general staff system.
Robertson reaped the benefit of the rising importance of trained staff officers, graduating from the staff college on the eve of the Boer War, to further his career. Although the British had prevailed in the Battery Park - Rations - For Victory (CD) War October to Maythe conflict had proved a harrowing and costly experience.
After the shock of early defeats, the British Army had reorganised itself, poured in additional resources ultimatelyBritish and colonial soldiers took part and eventually defeated the Boers after a protracted counter-guerrilla war. Some adjustments in training and new drill books followed, as well as the introduction of a new service rifle for the infantry and cavalry, and the rearmament of the horse and field artillery.
Yet the demands for reform were revived after the publication of two royal commissions in and The first exposed the many failings during the war and prompted a subsequent committee under Lord Esher in to advocate extensive reforms in higher defence management, including the creation of a general staff, an army council and a secretariat for the interdepartmental Committee of Imperial Defence. The General Staff was formed in November based, mainly, on the growing understanding that throwing together a higher HQ in time of need from whomever was available was not a practice suited to modern warfare.
In contrast to the Prussia staff system, the British Army was considered too small to support separate staff and command career streams, and such a system would in any case have been unacceptable to the British military ethos. The British staff would remain subordinate to command, and officers would not advance by merit in only one stream; they would alternate between the staff and command appointments, needing recommendations in both spheres to gain promotion.
A major reason for this approach was the serious rifts between staff and line units caused by the enormous losses witnessed during WW1, which meant that British senior officers decided that thenceforth all officers would rotate between staff and line responsibilities, preventing the development of a separate general staff corps Beevor, Major-General Henry Wilson as director of military operations overhauled all aspects of mobilisation, including staff, rail, naval, and horse-supply arrangements Spiers, In the British formed a rudimentary joint staff with the establishment of the Chiefs of Staff Committee.
The committee was made up of the three Service Chiefs:. As initially evolved under first Marlborough and then Wellington Zabecki,British staffs at divisional level and above were organised into three principal branches:.
As under the German system, the British Chief of the General Staff was essentially a super operations officer. Although the post holder coordinated the work of the entire staff, it was in collaboration with the chief administrative officer who directly supervised both the A and Q branches.
The chief administrative officer still had direct access to the commander. British General Staff officers during the period of both the world wars held a variety of job titles that were confusing to outsiders, as were the abbreviations for those positions:. The primary addition was the creation of a G5 for civil affairs. Each staff principal had an assistant from the opposite army. The chief of staff, US Lieutenant General Walter Bedell Smith, had three British deputies: one for air; one for operations and intelligence; and one for the adjutant general and quartermaster general functions.
It was not until the s that the British titled their principal course as command and staff. In he established a system that gave the US Army separate staff sections Mallick, responsible for administration, logistics, intelligence, and planning, which became a model for staffs throughout the remainder of the century; a hybrid of the continental system.
Lower-command echelons, however, only had three staff sections, eliminating logistics. But at the General HQ level, the Americans added a fifth principal staff section for training, which reflected the realities of having to train a massively expanded mobilisation army in the shortest time possible.
Sincethe doctrine and organisation of the US Army has changed significantly and repeatedly; yet, the staff structure has remained remarkably consistent. Under the chief of staff of the Army, the new General Staff had five divisions:. The four G sections dealt with policy, while the Operations Division oversaw operations worldwide. Presiding over the group was chief of staff to the president, Admiral William D. In the British and Americans also established the Combined Chiefs of Staff, with its base of operations in Washington.
As well as the General Staff, the staff organisation of lower echelons were further refined and the strength of HQ staffs increased significantly. For example, the staff of an infantry division headquarters in was authorised 27 officers; inthe allocation rose to 45 officers Mallick, Essentially, the military services became force providers to the commanders in chief of the unified commands, with the Joint Chiefs of Staff planning and coordinating American military operations worldwide.
The JCS, however, was not in the direct operational chain of command, which ran from the war-fighting commander in chief directly to the secretary of defence and the president — collectively called the National Command Authority NCA. The Joint Chiefs, collectively, were the military advisors to the secretary of defence and the president. In the Marine commandant became a full member of the JCS. Under this scheme, operational command and control of military forces are not the province of the Joint Staff, but that of Combatant Commanders, who report through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff unless otherwise directed, to the Secretary of Defence.
The Act also established the position of Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and significantly strengthened the position of the chairman by designating that officer as the primary military advisor to the president and the secretary of defence.
The national-level Joint Staff is limited to 1, military and civilian personnel. Presided over by the director of the Joint Staff, it is organised into eight principal directorates:.
At the level of the unified commands, each commander in chief is supported by a J-Staff organised similarly to the Joint Staff, but presided over by a chief of staff. In late secretary of defence Donald Rumsfeld directed that only the president of the United States of America held the tide of Commander in Chief, and henceforth the commanders of the unified commands simply Battery Park - Rations - For Victory (CD) be called commanding generals, or combatant commanders.
Below the national level, the staffs of current-day US Army units commanded by a general officer are organised into three primary groupings. The heart of the staff is the Coordinating Staff Group, which is generally uniform in its composition from unit to unit. The senior officer in charge of each of these sections normally has the title of Assistant Chief of Staff or Deputy Chief of Staff.
The chief of staff directly supervises both the Coordinating and the Special Staff groups. The Personal Staff Group consists of those staff members who report directly to the commander, including the command sergeant major, inspector general, staff judge advocate, chaplain and the aides-de-camp. Commanders, however, do have considerable latitude to modify the reporting arrangements within their staffs.
In some organisations, for example, the public affairs officer might be a part of the Personal Staff Group, while in others they might be part of the Special Staff Group. In other units, the fire-support coordinator and chemical officer might be detailed to work directly under the G3. Every staff, then, has its unique characteristics that reflect how the commander and the chief of staff want it to operate.
Canada quickly adopted the British staff system for the Canadian Army, and utilised and developed it up until Unification in ; although it remained the primary command and staff system until the late s Hamel, However, American influence over the decades witnessed a paradigm shift Coombs, and during the early s, the Canadians adopted a modified version of the continental system — although Hamel states it was nothing more than a renaming of the old staff positions — in order to better coordinate with other NATO forces.
The, then, new Land Force Employment Concept was based on five operational functions later capability domainswhich were:. In their paper, Dube and Thibaultp. In short, it is a problem of information management if the commander does not want to be overwhelmed with information. Dube and Thibault then suggest that the staff and HQ structure must be designed around the five capability domains, identified above, which would be possible with the establishment of five main HQ cells: Command, Current, Sense, Effects and Plans.
The Indian Army has also been considering the idea of modifying the current staff system Mallick, There are varying views on staff officers ranging from the polite to impolite, and below are some examples of Battery Park - Rations - For Victory (CD) dichotomised viewpoint.
Napoleon Bonaparte understood the need for, and value of, competent staff officers in the planning of warfare. Historically, the elite soldier has been highly skilled as a fighting man, but the Prussian elite were the members of the General Staff — desk soldiers, planners who fought their battles over maps. However, as one draws closer to WW1, in which staff officers played a significant role Simkins et al.
When one examines the reasons why these were opinions were formed — such as the wide differences in rations, pay, leave etc. A British solution to officer hate was to ban the creation of a separate staff officer stream based on the model of the Germans and stipulate that officers must rotate between command and staff appointments so as not to lose touch. The Canadians did not hold staff officers in high regard either, despite their contribution, as told by Tim Cook :.
But the brigadiers gathered together some experienced staff officers who assisted in the critical, if seemingly mundane, administrative work. Stirling therefore:. I emphasized how fatal it would be for the proposed unit to be put under any existing Branch or formation for administration.
Staff officers masquerading as military leaders typically give in to politicians, whereas real military leaders stand up to them and provide good advice. In my experience the Prime Ministers that I knew preferred the latter, but were consistently exposed to the former. These staff officers masquerading as leaders were great at arguing points or playing agendas, but totally useless at making the right decisions.
However, it is ironic to note that SAS officers, like their conventional counterparts, must rotate through staff officer appointments as part of their career development; in fact it is compulsory! Another viewpoint suggests that if an officer has not gained war experience they cannot be a good senior commander, with the dichotomy that having had previous war experience it makes the officer a good senior commander.
Experience under fire is important but should it exclude individuals from command appointments just because they lacked it. Some commentators suggest that some senior officers are more politicians than soldiers, it is not either or, in the modern environment they must be both; Iraq and Afghanistan are noteworthy examples.
Finally, it is important to place the SASs words in context. If your organisation consists of personnel, divided in to smaller operational units of men, then military planning can be conducted by one individual relatively easily.
Modern conventional forces would find it particularly difficult to operate without staff officers. For a tongue-in-cheek parody of a staff officer then look no further than Blackadder Goes Forth, a six-part comedy series first aired by the BBC in Bartholomees Jr, J. Cooke, J. Final memoirs of a staff officer serving in Virginia. From the mss. Craighill, W. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. Crawford, S. Leicester: Matador. LibriVox volunteers record chapters of books in the public domain, and then we release the audio files back onto the net.
We are a totally volunteer, open source, free content, public domain project. LibriVox volunteers narrate, proof listen, and upload chapters of books and other textual works in the public domain. These projects are then made available on the Internet for everyone to enjoy, for free. There are many, many things you can do to help, so please feel free to jump into the Forum and ask what you can do to help! See also: How LibriVox Works. MacArthur announced the end of organized resistance on Leyte.
Farther north, other US forces made faster progress against more disorganized and dispirited enemy troops. But Japanese defenders continued to fight as units until 31 December, and the ensuing mop-up of stragglers continued until 8 May The campaign for Leyte proved the first and most decisive operation in the American reconquest of the Philippines. Japanese losses in the campaign were heavy, with the army losing four divisions and several separate combat units, while the navy lost 26 major warships and 46 large transports and hundreds of merchant ships.
Sometroops still remained on Luzonbut the loss of air and naval support at Leyte so narrowed Gen. In effect, once the decisive battle of Leyte was lost, the Japanese gave up hope of retaining the Philippines, conceding to the Allies a critical bastion from which Japan could be easily cut off from outside resources, and from which the final assaults on the Japanese home islands could be launched. In it was claimed in Australia see Royal Commission on Espionage that Allied estimates of Japanese troop strengths including those on Leyte were given to Tokyo via the Soviet consulate in HarbinManchuria as Stalin wanted to delay an American victory over Japan until the Soviet Union could participate.
MacArthur's G-2 Willoughhby had underestimated the numbers, and the troops were reinforced. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the battle on the island of Leyte. For the naval battle, see Battle of Leyte Gulf. Philippines campaign — Theater, naval and air force commanders for the recapture of the Philippines.
Further information: Invasion of Leyte naval order of battle. Ground force commander on Leyte. Japanese commanders concerned in Leyte campaign. For the naval battle, see Battle of Ormoc Bay. Bataan death march George Benjamin, Jr. Richard Ira Bong Leonard C. Brostrom Elmer E. Moon, Jr. Charles E. Thorson Dirk J. Vlug Francis B. Universal Newsreel. Retrieved 21 February Vann The Battle for Leyte Gulf. New York: Macmillan. ISBN Page Melbourne, London: Scribe. Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from June Coordinates on Wikidata All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October Articles with unsourced statements from April Articles with unsourced statements from October Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States Army Center of Military History Commons category link is on Wikidata.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Axis Japan Second Philippine Republic. Sibert John R. Hodge Navy: Thomas C. Fourteenth Area Army 35th Army. Drop all the files you want your writer to use in processing your order. The files should be uploaded as soon as possible to give the writer time to review and use them in processing your order.
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