Beside Oneself - Mimetic Data* / Mimetic Be-At* - Sensitive / Sound A (CD, Album)
This book is a rewriting of my Ph. The first person I would like to thank is Mireia Aragay, whom I was extremely lucky to have as doctoral super- visor.
I owe her very much for all her support and the countless hours she spent on the refinement of my doctoral thesis. I am deeply indebted to the caring guidance of Enric Monforte and Pilar Zozaya during my years in Barcelona and beyond. I extend my gratitude also to five schol- ars whose advice enhanced the quality and the international scope of my work while visiting their institutions during my Ph. I feel privileged to have been able to work with all of them. I am most grateful to David Greig for his work, for the materi- als he generously provided me with and the many emails he answered.
This is why I feel so honoured to have this book opened with a foreword by Dan. Special thanks also to two scholars whom I deeply admire and whose work on Greig has also been crucial to this book, Clare Wallace and Marilena Zaroulia, for endorsing this book. For more information, please visit www. The list that follows and including the already-mentioned scholars contains very special people to me and to this book. Christoph Henke sadly passed away on 26 May I met Christoph in Augsburg in November I have fond memories of Christoph talking about his family and Julian Barnes.
We will always deeply miss Christoph, the excellent person, friend and colleague he was. Thanks for crossing borders with me. I would like to express my most sincere gratitude to my families in Murcia, Alicante, Barcelona and London and especially to my partner for keeping me going through some difficult times and for allowing me all the space and time I needed to complete this work. My wholehearted thanks go to my closest family for their unwavering confidence and their unconditional help and love.
Love you all. When I saw the play at the Young Vic in Octoberthe mention of sha- manism and shamans in the interview became clearly connected for me to the reference in the play to a festival of spirituality and the enacting of a shamanic exercise. Richard Schechner places shamanism within the framework of the wider term performance:.
Shamans are holed entities because, through a shaman, the world as it is, and potentially, a person in the world as it is, can establish a con- nection to the other worlds. At the same time, Greig has noted that he manipulates his conscious mind so as to force it not to intervene if some of the signals picked up by his antenna look irrational and to let the unconscious into the writing process.
Like a shaman, the playwright has the ability to communicate between worlds, which discloses those worlds, the real world and the world where characters live, as holed. But how do shamans and Greig get to communicate with other co-existing worlds? Indue to a writing block, Greig attended a soul-retrieval session with a shamanic healer in Fife Scotland in order to recuperate the fluidity between these worlds.
With regard to spiritual portals while the shamanic theatrical event takes place, for instance, in The Events, Claire attempts to create a symbolic portal through forming a circle and producing a hummed chant with her choir.
Whether these spiritual portals become active or not is less impor- tant than the fact that they are attempted. In sum, the commu- nication of worlds achieved in the creative process through spiritual trance states, soul retrieval or other, is implanted in the communica- tion of worlds desired in the play through spiritual portals, or other.
This already points out a crucial idea threading through this book: we live in a holed world, in a porous world, this world, this holed here.
But whose globalization? What ethics? Which spectators? David Greig Greig was born in Edinburgh in As soon as Greig completed his degree, he returned to Scotland, where he co-founded the theatre company Suspect Culture with Eatough actor and artistic director and Nick Powell musicianwhich received funding from the Scottish Arts Council until Secondly, he did not have enough money to buy the rights for new plays and soon realized that people wanted to pay him to write.
Although moments of in-yer-face sensibility are woven into some of his plays e. This national side, especially in terms of being part of the community of contemporary Scottish culture and politics—for he seems to feel he is one of its public spokespersons— is central to Greig.
Despite those off-border Scotland and peripheral and on-the- border inside and outside Sloane Square positionings, Greig has had an increasingly successful national and international career. The National Theatre of Scotland was founded in and Greig was its first dram- aturg in residence in He does figure in courses on contemporary perfor- mance and contemporary British theatre.
Settings that unsettle some scholars and critics due to their apparent unspecificity or ungraspable specificity include dispersed locales across the globe, place conglomerates and resonant micro-locations. Recurrent themes are the pathological, the exposure of power abuse, the impact of the media, a vital engagement with characters on the move, or the pervasiveness of global trade and technology and their impact on everyday life.
Others are related to physical geography—Pyrenees —indicate geo- graphically remote sites—Outlying Islands —relate to alterna- tive urban geographies—One Way Street —or make reference to national identity—Being NorwegianThe American Pilot In addition, some characters have the names of countries and cities—Morocco and Berlin Europe. Indeed, all the plays under discussion feature violence—often entwined with a sense of masculinity in crisis.
Since conjuring up the scenes from the world in ethical ways as well as politico-aesthetically in a play is no easy task, his plays impor- tantly resort, among other strategies, to the dialectical method. Adorno and poet W. Adorno proposed, however, that thesis and antithesis could be held in the same thought until the tension between them became so great that they tore the fabric of rational reality.
Both Adorno and Greig sustain the idea that this frame that encap- sulates all that exists needs to be torn apart —notice how once again in relation to the discussion on shamanism presented above a struc- ture needs to be transgressed. I am using this stripped-down definition of a map because it links up the aerial perspective with the capacity to map out or engage with mapping.
In sum, the aerial perspective is one of the pivotal mechanisms whereby Greig engages with the scenes from the world in his plays. For instance, Cosmonaut includes two cosmo- nauts who constantly look down and, again, Cosmonaut and Pyrenees fea- ture the daughter of one of the cosmonauts, who constantly looks up and yearns for her father, and a UFO observer who watches the sky, respectively.
While looking down from roofs Europe, The Architect establishes an aerial perspective, Greig provides numerous instances where spatial shifts set up a dialectical relationship, sometimes leading to fatal events. For instance, there are cases of exploding high up The Architect, Cosmonaut and Brewers Fayre which usually involve others looking up from the ground. Engagement with dialectics in this multifarious manner might produce a demand on the spectator to experience the scenes from the world in unusual ways.
Holes are relentlessly allowing connection as well as pointing out violence, among other negative senses of relation. A hole allows constant interaction to take place. A hole simultaneously acknowledges sides. A hole suggests the impossi- bility of one-sidedness. Holes allow the disarticulation of dichotomist thinking. A hole is an impossible limit.
Holes undermine borders and punctuate some walls. Holes provoke discomfort see, for instance, trypophobia, i. Holes are ambivalent, contradictory. Holes suggest opening as well as damage; contact as well as contagion; vision as well as surveillance. A hole may point out all kinds of apertures in text and in per- formance, including silence. I am not the first to use the guiding metaphor of the hole with regard to the work of a playwright.
The notion of the hole has been, for instance, applied to African American playwright Susan-Lori Parks. Theatre can also generate holes through which intensities and new knowledge may pass through. In Chapter 3, I look at the effects of the penetration of reality in dramaturgical and theatrical structures and in theatre as form. Considering theatre as an across form, a form that seems to proclaim itself not as something in the world but as porous part of the world, in Chapter 4 I look at the wider implications—including the spectator in the equation—and I suggest a holistic way to approach this kind of wounded world theatre.
The book draws to a close with a conclusion Chapter 13 that defines holed theatre tak- ing into account the previously argued and discusses the mutating con- tinuities found in the plays analysed in the book. In this respect, my methodology has in mind holes too as it imagi- nes playwright and his creative process and approach to playwritingplays, spectators and the world as interconnected. My analysis mixes dra- matic textual and performance staging of plays analyses according to the argument I want to make in relation to the main topics of the book.
Since individual theoretical chapters will address these three concepts, it might suffice for now to offer a brief definition that suits the contents of this book.
Thirdly, a spectator is generally speaking one who has the faculty of seeing. The spectator is not conceived as a detached individual. The spectator is above all someone who is in the world, in this one, here. Notes 1. Jacqueline Bolton, special issue, Contemporary Theatre Review 26, no. XV Oxford: Clarendon Press, Dan Rebellato London: Methuen, Aleks Sierz London: Bloomsbury,8. London and New York: Routledge,2.
Allan Gillis, Edinburgh Review : He has also co-directed San Diego with Marisa Zanotti. As to acting, he has played Ian in Brewers Fayre, for instance. It refers to a particular s sensibility that underpins extreme theatrical renderings of sex and violence. Aleks Sierz London: Bloomsbury, David Greig London: Methuen,ix. Clare Wallace London: Bloomsbury, British Political Drama in the s, eds.
David Edgar London: Faber, By Sarah Kane London: Methuen,x. David Greig Edinburgh: Capercaillie, Nicholas Kent London: Oberon, Jephcott London and New York: Verso, Performance, eds. See Performance in the Blockades Maura Wickstrom50 and 49 respectively.
See also David Greig, Dr. Philip G. Kolin Jefferson: McFarland, The financial regulatory measures influenced by John Maynard Keynes and agreed at Bretton Woods were scrapped in the s, giving way to a predatory unregulated global capitalist financial market which we still have today. This book contends that moments in the theatre discussed herein might activate such holes.
Other develop- ments include rampant consumerism, the global high street and a sense of homogenisation across the globe through the franchise system, the vast power of corporations, the thriving of finance, the implementation of global trade deals and the continued use of tax havens.
An increase in environmental pollution and climate change has been another pre- dominant issue. Other phenomena include the concentration of population and mass urban- isation in metropolitan areas, a widening gap between rich and poor individuals, the displacement of indigenous peoples and cultures, mul- ti-layered migratory movements, buoyant weapon, drug and pharmaceu- tical industries and a severe increase in mental illnesses.
It is part of the business of the contemporary British playwright to travel about the world on behalf of the British Council doing workshops. Globalization has changed not only what playwrights write about and how they write but also the spaces or rather space-times they evoke in their work and the set of interconnections triggered by the work. The notion of relational space has already gained some currency in theatre studies. Liquid modernity is characterized by a divorce between power and politics, or the ability to do things and the ability to decide about those things.
Indeed, a theatre that fosters a heightened apprehension that the world is not a given, but is to be freshly invented each time, that it can and probably should be created, can perhaps infuse spectators with a sense that they could be a vital part of that world-forming process. InContemporary Theatre Review published a spe- cial issue on globalization, where Baz Kershaw notes that globalization is worth paying attention to in the context of theatre and performance studies given its performative dimension.
Greig himself has also referred to globalization in relation to his work and to theatre in general in myriad ways. However, this is always combined with the positive outcomes of glo- balization and a powerful utopian impulse that points out the possibility of change. How does this phenomenon affect the life of form? The emphasis on form in playwriting in the era of globalization already figures in an earlier and seminal article by Rebellato. But why does it seem necessary to drill holes in any structure?
However, I did not explore one of the possible mechanisms that make this logic of extension so power- ful. As Rebellato puts it. As more and more of our life — even friendship and fresh air — is transformed into exchange-values, more and more of our life must be translatable into money.
In order for these innovations in form undoings of time, location and character—narrative seems to over- all be affected by the unboundedness of those to surface more clearly, I will set them against the features of state-of-the-nation plays. Besides, minuscule forces often seem as effective as large ones.
Rather than an escapist manoeuvre, the unspecificity and indeter- minacy of character and history and the importance of the small and the marginal invite the spectator to recompose the fragments and perhaps create different knowledge about the world. Lincoln Center, This gradual evaporation of singularity has been particularly character- istic of playwriting in the era of globalization: Sarah Kane followed the Beckettian trajectory by moving from Ian and Cate in Blasted to A, B, C, and M in Crave Paines Plough,and in her final play, 4.
Royal Court Theatre Upstairs, This is exactly what this book finds profoundly produc- tive, provocative and political in contemporary British theatre. David Greig London: Methuen,xxiii. Lara D. See Spaces David Harveyoriginal emphasis. Richard A. Dan Rebellato London: Methuen Tauris5. This does not imply that state-of-the-nation plays and glo- balization plays are the only kinds of plays preoccupied with politics.
See also The Theatre Clare Wallace9. Lewellen, Political Anthropology: An Introduction, 3rd ed. Connecticut and London: Praeger, Such attributes include being large-cast plays, usually performed in large theatres with a national profile, and focusing on a direct representation of facts and values of concern to the nation-state.
Adrienne Scullion and Wallace also respectively read The Speculator and Victoria as history plays. Sarah Kane London: Methuen,xiv. In order to do so, it highlights four ideas: namely, its suspicion of aesthetics; the. As noted in Chapter 2, Dan Rebellato has also underlined the interconnection between form and content, specifically globalization and ethics.
She begins by pointing out that Bourriaud omits a genealogy of participatory models in relational artistic practices and practices interested in activating the viewer. Ramin Gray, who directed the premieres of The American Pilot and The Eventshas claimed that morality72 is one of the lenses through which The Events may be examined.
Greig is not alone in this as a playwright. That is to say, the aesthetics would be wrenched from that which since Plato has constituted it as such: namely, mimetology.
Absolute drama is characterised by containment or considered as a sealed-off whole in all aspects. In absolute drama, there is no attention paid to anything exter- nal to the dramatic world as such, for instance, theatre-makers and spec- tators are not of interest in this approach. Features of absolute drama include linear unfolding of time, the endorsing of the three unities, rounded individual characters and prevalence of dialogue.
Last Night Was Only a Comedywhich includes literal as well as less obvious references to the notion of the hole:. Quite a while into the performance of this piece, a performer interrupts to apologize to the audience — in a stuttering, faltering manner — that the company is lacking a beginning. All of this is reinforced by the fact that the irruption of reality into plays does not occur con- stantly or evenly and by the fact there is an oscillation between reality and mimesis during plays.
But, what about theatre erupting into the world? In a sense this is a project which sees a chain of transfers at play, and aims at unfixing mimesis and reality, at showing that they interpenetrate and that while that produces confounding, it is not neces- sarily confusing at all but revelatory with regard to placing us in a more advantageous position to address the complexities of the political under globalization which constantly and strategically appropriates mimetic mechanisms.
They can, therefore, be described as politically inflected aesthetic gestures. Wounded aesthetic strategies are to some extent related to a sense of unboundedness and a desire to express interconnection, which means that this chapter builds on the content presented in Chapter 2.
This transcends realistic bodily and spatial coordinates and suggests interconnection, albeit highly fraught at times. My suggestion is that these moments of ecstasy are symptoms of a desire to reach out, to experience the self outside the self by transgressing the policed boundary between body and world. Despite their violence, moments of ecstasy can be argued to show a desire for un boundedness and suggest a lust for the world. Connected to an authorial dimension, they give the impression of omniscience.
Yet, beyond that relation, aerial characters escape a contained definition as alter egos of the playwright. To begin with, the evaporation of singular- ity occurs through doubling e. A paradigmatic case is the evaporation of the singularity of male characters through generic nam- ing—for instance, Morocco, Berlin or Horse in Europe; the Boy in The Events.
This phenomenon is also present in the very title of plays, such as Cosmonaut and The American Pilot. Evaporation goes of course beyond character. Experimentation with character also opens up the number of tasks that a character can perform—as spectators perform Caroline, they occupy an in-between space between character and themselves undo- ing the contours of both. The evaporation of clear boundaries between participants in the theatrical event is also apparent in The Events, where the presence of a community choir facing the spectator places her in an uncertain position.
If this works, spectators might see them- selves as part of the scenes from the world represented on stage. It is not only that the contradictions in the work might prompt the cracking of the narrative superstructure but also that the playwright sets a bomb to his own plays, creating a big hole in them. The Suppliant Women But even these positions are confounded; they are never fully stable, determined or fixed. A general sense of bleeding across might generate moments of confounding.
See Artificial Claire Bishop By David Greig London: Faber,n. My references in French come from that volume. My references in English come from a translation by Joan Tambureno published in the Journal of European Psychoanalysis in Paris: Albin-Michel, London and New York: Routledge, Theatre, Performance, Theory, eds. These transformations go hand in hand with an interest in theatre as expanded field pace Alan Readincluding attention to the public sphere, architectures, atmospheres, environments and ecologies.
For instance, when Greig wrote Damascus he never thought that his play would transcend a so-called western audience and tour in the Middle East including Damascus, Beirut, Ramallah, Cairo and Tunis. Greig has recognised in numerous occasions that young audiences have always been quite formative in that children and young people are spontaneous and gen- uine in their responses as well as highly demanding audience members.
In that sense, in some ways and to a certain extent, my approach is auto-ethnographic. When that is unavailable because I have not seen the play in question, I draw on as many sources as possi- ble in order to attempt to offer an informed discussion. Always having in mind the work analysed in this book, my general dis- cussion of spectatorship is theoretical and will use affect theory in order to suggest the notion of holed spectator.
I am interested in discussing what might happen to the spectator in the experience of spectating, and in particular, what that experience might evoke and provoke in relation to notions of objecthood and individuality under globalization. The theory that I will suggest considers the spectator as an undone category and spectating as an undone experience, which is presented as a critique to globalization. To begin with, then, affect theory resists definition and indeed the concept of a turn.
It seems obvious that the body cannot be considered as a confined structure when the focus is widely on relations, forces and intensities and on the passage of those forces and intensities through and across bod- ies. The mouth, for example, is a marker of communication and of freedom of speech—or depriva- tion from it. Consequently, raising awareness about bodily holes—and, beyond them, the hole as a concept—may foreground an aware- ness of our vulnerability, relationality, dependence and sociability.
Indeed, the notion of the hole also allows tackling violence as well as other forms of relationality. This book broadens the notion of the hole to encompass any kind of hole in any kind of un structure as a vehicle that highlights the connection between realms usually thought of as separate, thus high- lighting an ethical dimension.
If globalization already includes the whole world, these reflections on holes bring an understanding of globalization as thoroughly holed or wholed. This concept advocated for a nat- uralist style which celebrated the separation—marked by the proscenium arch—between actors and spectators. To begin with, that formal quality of theatre the transgression of the fourth wall may be transferred to the spectator, who may become a holed spectator.
A spectator can also be said to be holed because our bodies are physi- cally holed. One is equipped with an inbuilt openness and therefore with the possibility of ethical response.
A holed spectator is any spectator. A holed spectator is a spectator pierced by the impact of the contradictions triggered by theatre. This might perhaps affect the holed spectator, inciting her to affectively feel part of the porous, interconnected landscape of the scenes from the holed world. A holed spectator is a spectator affected by the un bounded ontology of theatre resulting in a relational understanding of bodies and space-times, where she is crucially woven into.
A holed spectator is a spectator whose body intertwines with other bodies, worlds and their in-betweens. Experiences which defy individualism-reinforcing affective practices work against the manipulation of affect.
However, it is crucial not to collapse in a sense of bidirectionality and allow a more open interplay between the spectator and the show, which should not be objectified either. This of course reveals that works are holed too. To begin with, Turner argues that integrating community and thea- tre-making activates a sense of porosity. She also applies the concept of porousness to interculturality in performance, in her example, to the retaining of Western theatre forms while including traces of Eastern Caribbean culture.
In addition, porosity relates to the negotiation between stage and street in the process of walking. These group structures are, I suggest, simultaneously reconfigured and problematized. Greig struggles when it comes to articulating his thoughts about what theatre Album) particular can do:. Each form has its own physics if you like; it has a particular movement. Crucially, the pair is characterised by its inseparability, so that it helps build bridges between the material aspects of affect and senses of immateriality.
Conclusive Remarks: Perforating Acts To perform and to spectate is to perforate and be perforated, in that theatre creates affective loops and pathways of connection, a connec- tion which occurs not just through harmonious and bright feelings but also negative feelings, dissensus and disagreement. In this light, theatre becomes an encounter with the uncomfortable as well as the joyous. The very relational and bled-across way in which theatre-making is understood, speaks to the character of relations suggested in the work.
Melissa Gregg and Gregory J. Seigworth Durham: Duke University Press,1. Seigworth Durham: Duke University Press, Seigworth London and New York: Verso, Seigworth1 original emphasis. Seigworth3. Seigworth2 original emphasis. Nicola Shaughnessy London: Bloomsbury, This and all subsequent translations from Spanish to English are my own. Clough Seigworth4. Seigworth2. Personal notes. Bianquis, C. Beside Oneself - Mimetic Data* / Mimetic Be-At* - Sensitive / Sound A (CD, E.
Heinrichs, eds. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edition, vol. W-Z Leiden: Brill, Europe Traverse, is a play set in a post-Wall, post-industrial bor- der town near the Balkan war-torn area at the heart of Europe that explores issues of European belonging.
While Billy becomes an economic migrant, the two other furnacemen decide to petrol bomb the train station to call attention to their idea that immigrants are taking their jobs.
Morocco and Billy together and you get Europe. A non-exhaustive glance at the state of Europe and its ongoing cri- ses at present strongly suggests that the play is as timely as ever: high rates of unemployment; continuing privatisation of state-owned busi- nesses; offshore tax havens and relocation of manufacturing industries; rise of far right- and left-wing parties and neo-fascist groups; outbursts.
Additionally, the play is also concerned with the globalising pressures present in European post-Wall societies, including Britain. Traditional industries continued to be swept away in the s, a post-industrialisation process which plays such as The Architect also explore.
In contrast, the Chorus seems to provide a key sense of continu- ity and to embody a witnessing presence and an admittedly bruised community dimension. Confoundings Confounding is the uncertain sensation produced as a result of the unmarking of contours of categories, elements, concepts, etc.
Confounding critiques the global imperative of individualism and objecthood disclosing that everything is intensely porous and holed. The stop in the interstice, in the liminal space station so that the encoun- ter can take place, is never produced. One way in which this oscillation between place and place- lessness is captured in the play is via the name of the town not signal- ling any more—only shortly while on the news—a name or a place but a condition and an effect, respectively.
Close suggestions Search Search. User Settings. Skip carousel. Carousel Previous. Carousel Next. What is Scribd? English Burmese Dictionary. Uploaded by raymondt Document Information click to expand document information Description: Dictionary. Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Description: Dictionary. Flag for inappropriate content. Download now. Related titles. Even if the generation system is completely automated and linked to the macrostructure of the piece, such subtleties clearly highlight the total liberty left to the composer to handle these various materials according to his own inspiration, so as to meet musical needs of a superior nature.
Moreover, the capacity to explore in depth the qualitative aspect of vocal generation while conserving an organic link with the gamelan offers the last but not least advantage of returning a material that is immediately ready to use. Just like the entirely modelled kotekan techniques, this material may in turn be subjected to very sophisticated algorith. These functions make up an extensive library. They may be applicable to a group of voices as well as to isolated voices.
The flexibility of graphic programming—the capacity to encapsulate several generation levels and to gradually refine the returned results—makes it possible to build draft sketches that can generate musical sequences lasting several minutes, as shown in Figure Beyond technology This project has been a step forward in my understanding of musical languages, first and foremost of my own.
But I must now come to the heart of the matter. It took several months for me to get attuned to the world of the gamelan . I actually had to learn how to write for this collective body, whose operating mode was utterly unknown to me, being so far from that of a Western orchestra that is mainly focused on the individual.
While collecting relevant literature  and developing the architecture of the Lisp program at the same time, I produced several musical sketches that were immediately tested by the musicians. This to-and-fro process allowed me gradually to grasp the usual practices, then much rarer ones sometimes reserved for initiated musicians, for instance the art of Kendang or of Gender.
Only then could I start designing my own devices of composition for the gamelan. However, the true question came up later when it came to choosing the title and the texts with Kati Basset, who helped me chart my own course thanks to her judicious. She reminded me that the practice of the gamelan was first and foremost a ritual and social gesture, far from the concept of art or pure aesthetics defining Western concerts where music has its own intrinsic value.
From the start, the work was conceived as a triptych combining operating forces. The Balinese cosmology founding Tri Bhuwana has been a means to give deeper sense to the speculative choices made at the beginning of the project.
SWAH is the world of essences, principles and oneness, the origin of all things. BUWAH is that of form and objects perceived by our senses in their everyday use.
As for BHUR, it is the world of lower reality, devoid of spirituality and tending towards shapeless disintegration. Beyond the technical considerations described in this chapter, my ability to give musical life to the basic principles of this tripartite world became the main stake of this project. The leads were manifold and could induce treatments of the material that I would never have imagined without the support of this cosmological guideline. That is how willingly unfinished musical features such as armless kotekan or headless melodies quite naturally found their way into the score, echoing the Bhur infra- world, peopled as it is of Buta-Kala with incomplete bodies, as illustrated in Figure The two voices shown in Figure 30 recite the syllabic text which is associated with two modal transpositions of these vowels.
A new text appears, whose meaning is in no way altered by the shift effected: Once upon a time, there were two emissaries of like power. They killed each other at the top. Clearly, such a long-lasting immersion in the world of Tri Bhuwana has opened my mind to new dimensions, in particular a broader relationship to time, together with a more physical approach to sound vibration. As I was proceeding in the writing of the piece, I felt a deep drive to let go, to forsake the frantic nature of some of my composer habits.
Indeed, tirelessly repeating the five evocations of the name of Shiva so as to elaborate a complete sequence as in Section B2 of the piece cannot be insignificant, even with the use of variation. In this way, Tri Bhuwana will no doubt leave its deep and long-lasting mark on my subsequent work, as was already clear in the pieces that followed it. Even if Revenantes, a piece for female voices and cello, seems far remote from anything Balinese, this opus composed just after Tri Bhuwana is still deeply under its influence .
I have no doubt that from the spiritual experience I underwent with Tri Bhuwana has stemmed a genuine renewal of my musical language and composition methods.
References  Catherine Basset. Le Banian, 9, Archipel, 79, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, Balungan, IV 2 I am deeply grateful to Kati Basset for her expert advice and unflinching support throughout the long musical and spiritual progress inherent to this project. I would also like to thank Nicole Mausset for her translations and rereading of this text.
Individual progressions gradually change the passage in each instrument, altering combinations of pitch, time, structure, and stochastic elements, before passing the result to the next progression. The chapter introduces the overlying organisational structure, as well as the justification for this system, and guidelines for moving between these patches and composing by hand. Examples that make use of these patches are presented in four compositions: Sliding Apart, Melodious Viscosity, and two movements from Short Pieces on Falling.
Introduction Computer-assisted composition CACand specifically the use of OpenMusic, is es- pecially prevalent in my music related to the development of progressions. I define a progression as a directed alteration of elements of a musical passage over time.
This applies both to continuous progressions one long line that continues to changeand sequences progressions where the same idea is repeated while evolving at each instance. Sequences are essentially changing repetitions, and have long been in use, but have until the 20th Century been mostly confined to diatonic and sometime chromatic modulations of the base element model. In the 20th Century, especially with the music of Olivier Messiaen, rhythm began to change in a formalised way.
It is true that rhythms in Bach, for example, occasionally change during sequences, but almost never in a consistent, directional, and quantifiable way. I have used CAC in nearly all of these processes, but the present focus will be on development.
The latter in particular is an exploratory set of over a dozen small pieces to examine which uses of computer-assisted composition I hope to extrapolate in larger projects over the next few years; the two selected movements represent the compositional processes I found the most appealing. Theory and programming Programming structure Because progressions and sequences invariably play a role in every one of my pieces, to remain useful and portable, patches have to be flexible and rearrangeable: they require sufficient parameters for control and variety, but with a simplicity to render them efficient.
For this reason I use modular patches, each one for a different treatment, applied in sequence. In some cases, order of application makes no difference, such as a patch that progressively changes the pitch of all the notes and another that removes half the notes. But in other cases order is crucial, such as a patch that stretches selected durations and another that randomises attacks based on temporal location. The system is summarised in Figure 1. Progressions can be organised continuously or in discrete segments.
A continuous progression is like a glissando, where a treatment is progressively applied over time or over a number of notes to an entire passage, with no regard for where notes fall in phrases or musical cells within the whole.
Figure 2 shows how the results of a simple transposition differ between these two types of progression. Essentially, discrete progressions allow one to maintain the integrity of the musical cells within shown as bars in Figure 2. While chord-seq objects for continuous progressions can be passed in their entirety to the applicator, the initial data for discrete progressions must be passed as a list of cells, so that the applicator can keep track of where the divisions are.
If we consider repeating cells as columns in a table, and the different voices as rows, this means that music for discrete progressions will be sent as a matrix of rows and columns Figure 3-bwhile passages for continuous progressions may be sent as rows only Figure 3-a. These two ways of organising progressions can then each be divided into two treat- ments in my compositional system, each corresponding to a specific series of tools.
Applicator patches for the first treatment apply the functions directly to chord-seqs, and entire chord-seqs are passed to the progression function through the applicator. Where necessary, such as with discrete progressions, the applicator contains a mechanism to map break-point functions bpfs or constant values to the arguments required for processing each chord-seq. Applicator patches for the second treatment allow functions to be applied to one note at a time, which I term musical atoms including pitch, onset, duration, velocity, MIDI channel, and offset informationand the application mechanism maps different points on a temporal bpf to different arguments for the function being called.
Values can thus be sampled from a bpf for each individual atom in a line, and used as arguments for functions that alter atoms. Figure 4 shows how values from a bpf are mapped to a musical passage depending on whether they are mapped continuously or discretely, and whether they are mapped by chord-seqs or by atoms. No temporal mapping unless inside Points on bpf mapped to each cell, the progression function. The con- based on position of that cell within stant is used as an argument for the the whole passage.
Figure 5 shows the modular framework of these four systems implemented in Open- Music. The music is passed from an original motive at the top to the complete altered progression at the bottom. At the beginning, a multi-seq! B shows bpfs for controlling the transposition, one bpf for each voice.
The next level C differs for continuous or discrete progressions. For continuous progressions, the patch createbasepolypattern! Thus it produces one long chord-seq with several iterations of a motive for each instrument. The patch fillmatrix from multiseq, for discrete progressions, is similar but does not concatenate the repetitions, instead holding them in a matrix so the cells can be treated individually.
Step D is the application of a patch to one or several musical passages—the primary place where these four methods differ. For the purpose of this example, the same list of bpfs is used for all of the progressions, one for each voice of the input data.
For transpositions this is trivial, but for more complex progressions this allows the programmer to focus only on how an argument affects one note at a time, and saves reprogramming the bpf time-mapping each time. Applybpfstomatrix is essentially another elaborate list iterator, working on the matrix of chord-seqs instead of a list and sampling the supplied bpfs or other values to produce the lambda function arguments.
Applybpfstomatrix by atom is similar, but instead of passing chord-seqs it processes individual notes as atoms—being careful, however, to map the same values onto all the notes from one musical cell. This ensures that cells can be treated independently: for example when transposing a cell this way intervals in the cell will remain intact, but when using the applybyatoms method for continuous progressions each interval will be altered as the transposition curve is applied see Figure 2 for an example.
Looking more closely at the resulting chord-seqs in Figure 5, the first and second are identical, as are the third and fourth. So in this case application by chord-seq and by atom yield the same results. However, the left two continuous transpositions differ from the right two discrete transpositions: in the continuous case, even within the first three- note cell, the initial intervallic relationships are distorted compared to the initial cell at the upper-left of the patch.
In the discrete case, entire three-note cells are transposed. Finally, several further functions are used:. For example, in some cases one instrument like a piano may play several lines at once—this allows them to be merged together into one staff. A note on atoms Atoms5 are a concept to simplify how functions are applied to chord-seqs where a process is being applied to each note inside the chord-seq independently. This includes mapping the y-values of bpfs supplied as arguments to different atoms based on their onsets.
Figure 6 shows a simple example of how a transposition function would work in the context of applybyatoms. They represent, for this way of working, the smallest piece of information that can still be useful to a musical progression. Types of progressions The progressions used in my music can be grouped into three categories: pitch functions, time functions, and stochastic functions, although with a significant degree of crossover.
Most of these functions work well using atom-application tools because the various values that affect change are applied on a temporal basis as progressions generally aremaking the bpf mapping mechanism very useful. Some progressions, however, require the function to consider overall low and high values for pitches or note lengths across an entire chord-seq.
This is poorly handled with atoms because they allow a function only to manage one note at a time, disregarding other notes. In these cases, functions are constructed to apply to whole chord-seqs using instead applicators applybpfstomatrix or applytoseveralscoreobjects. Progression programming in my compositional process Advantages The primary advantage of conceiving and programming progressions in this manner is the amount of material easily generated, and the possibility to hear quick approximate results by changing various parameters.
For example, imagine a patch that first gradually stretches timings, then gradually raises pitch as a function of time, then a function that removes notes as a function of time, and finally a function that increases the range of a motive as a function of its location in the passage. While the result of this process is easily musically imaginable, the creation of such a passage, lasting perhaps thirty seconds at a fast tempo, could take an afternoon. Now imagine that the end result were not quite satisfactory, and one wanted to change the first step of the algorithm to stretch the timing slightly more over the length of the passage.
This process affects each of the following processes in sequence, and rewriting this by hand could take another afternoon; whereas verifying the workability of this alternative would take seconds in OpenMusic. Stemming from this flexibility are formal advantages for composing, including the possibility of efficiently creating variants of a passage. These can either be parametrically different passages that may require only a slight shift in parameters, stochastic variations requiring only a new evaluation of the same patches, or variations of processes that apply a similar colour to different source materials.
Because of the nested nature of the patches, it is also possible to create progressions of progressions to any number of layersretaining a formal direction in each level of nesting.
For more on this see . A variant of this idea is the possibility easily to create progressions that go elsewhere from the original instance. For example, the same progression could occur many times, each transposing to a different tonal area, possibly over a different period of time.
A fork in the road: Further programming or interpretation of data into music The output data usually provides a clear-cut progression with an obvious direction, but like some ideas developed using CAC, it could sound overly mechanical played raw.
Here, the composer is left with a choice: interpret the data and begin to compose with it by hand, or develop further processes in OpenMusic to render data closer to the musical intention. In this sense, interpreting the data refers to applying in some way a compositional sense of intuition to the computer-generated output. It is crucial to understand where and why the data falls short of being effective musically, whether for the purpose of improving the programming process or simply for the sake of efficiently pinpointing what needs fixing by hand.
While this discussion could be much elaborated, below are two main areas of interest that have come up in my work. One of the principal decisions often relates to data with randomness. What we perceive as randomness and seek occasionally in our music is rarely true randomness, but rather even distribution with a degree of randomness.
Four voices stacked on top of one another are occasionally bound to line up, creating a synchronicity that our ears perceive as ordered. In the same way, in a sequence of random note values, there will occasionally be several of the same value in a row, creating an ordered impression where there is technically no order.
In many cases in OpenMusic, several evaluations are required before obtaining a result that sounds truly random. It is possible although it involves further programming to use constraints systems to control the amount of repetition of an element in a random sequence or to control or restrict the output of several elements that follow a pattern for example, four random numbers that result in the sequence 2, 4, 6, 8.
Currently, I have dealt with this issue in two more primitive steps, keeping closer to the music and further from programming at this stage.
First, the patch is evaluated several times to find a result that sounds appealing. Second, the result is reworked by hand interpretedaltering rhythms or sequences by ear or by searching through the preceding material for patterns, notes, or note-values that have not yet appeared.
For longer passages, it can even be worth performing several evaluations and taking pleasing segments from each. OMClouds: see . Once a progression becomes too predictable, it loses much of its dramatic value. Even randomness, which adds a degree of instability, can itself become predictable. One approach to dealing with this is by interrupting the progression. I have developed tools to incorporate freezes and silences in some cases based on direction changes in bpfs, but these also engender their own type of predictability.
Thus, I prefer interpreting the OpenMusic data by hand and instead focusing on listening. As soon as I recognise the intention of a progression, that means there is not long to change it before it loses its musical interest.
From there, the question is whether the progression should be interrupted and continued again, interrupted and restarted, or stopped outright.
When a progression returns for the second or third time, as a recurrent idea in different parts of a piece, the third option is often best. Next, the nature of the interruption comes into question. It may be a slightly altered continuation of the progression already in progress for example, an upward scale that momentarily doubles in speed or becomes an upward glissando.
It may also be a sort of stop or break, such as a freeze or a silence. Or it may refer to completely different material, although usually material that has already been introduced, suggesting a flashback.
Finally, only once the first interruption is written is it possible to move forward and determine where and if another interruption is needed. To be musically useful, this process must take into account the material and time that precedes it. Even beyond these two issues, the data may Album) lack the flow or spontaneous feeling I seek in my music. Regardless of how far the patches go, the data itself is rarely musically suitable for my needs. For this, more drastic measures are required: it is here that reinterpretation becomes relevant.
Reinterpretation What I call reinterpretation is a process like the interpretation of data discussed above, but a step further towards impulsive intuition. In some cases, this involves playing through the passage on an instrument and recording or transcribing especially the rhythm. This opens the possibility to move back and forth in time, add occasional notes, or alter harmonies where the ear suggests.
In cases with many lines undergoing processes simultaneously, I may take what strikes me as the leading line, reinterpret this, and then rebuild the other lines around this one. Some computer-assisted tools for reinterpreting the passages are also useful, including scrubbing and transcribing the result in a notation program or sequencer, or simply tapping the tempo or chord changes and re-transcribing the new rhythm.
These are not, however, recipes to successful reinterpretation and require discretion to determine their utility in each case. Other- wise uncomfortable passages become familiar and comfortable sounding, and undesired rough edges become softened in our memory.
Programming in OpenMusic can involve. This is why, for me, it is crucial to return to the output data several days after the evaluation and ideally to return to it in a new context.
The time allows me to rehear the musical ideas in a fresh way and to be surprised, a crucial element to my music.
Use and interpretation in Sliding Apart CAC processes were used in nearly every section of this piece. Between sections, the main fast theme breaks down by dying and fading away in several dimensions.
As soon as the motive begins to become obsessive, it breaks down rhythmically, slowing down at the same time, and putting the different lines out of sync. Certain notes go missing from the pattern, and the pitch slowly drops. Some elements are completely controlled in this progression, while others have stochastic influences.
The musical goal is to create a sense of sudden falling apart in order to break away from a section that is otherwise extremely rigid and rhythmically precise.
The progression takes place within one large patch see Figures 7, 8, and 9in which the general structure is to be noted before looking at the processes in detail.
First, because the progressions are only functional on single-note lines and not chords or other forms of harmonythe violin and cello double-stops two-note chords are broken up into two lines each.
The beginning of the patch, as seen in Figure 7, imports the initial cell, creates ten iterations of it, and adjusts the tempo before passing the list of chord-seqs onto the Figure 7. Sliding Apart patch 1.
The first significant treatment, a rhythmic expansion rhythmextendcompressworks in ratios: the initial ratio 1 for all the instruments is attached to the lambda patch, while the destination ratios are attached to the applydifferentlytoscoreobjects patch. Any argument that is the same for all in- struments can be connected directly to the lambda-mode patches. While this process does not apply to the strings at all their ratio moves from 1 to 1it does mean the flute becomes progressively slower, as do the clarinet and piano to lesser degrees.
In con- junction with the next process melodyrisefall- overallintervalwhich lowers each line over a specific interval, the highest-pitched instru- ments slow down and Beside Oneself - Mimetic Data* / Mimetic Be-At* - Sensitive / Sound A (CD the most in pitch, contrary to our usual conception of inertia.
Versions of this patch used in other parts of the piece include an additional process after rhythmextendcompress, to equalise the lengths of the different lines by padding them so that time-based processes could be applied similarly to all lines. The stochastic processes are randomize- timegradient and gradualnoteremoval—their interest lies not in being random, but in cre- ating a gradient in randomness. Randomize- timegradient takes four arguments: the amount of randomness in possible millisecond Figure 8.
Sliding Apart patch 2. Time in this function does, however, remain linear, meaning notes and their endings still retain the same order. Gradualnoteremoval also contains a random element, removing more and more notes, but not necessarily the same ones on each evaluation—meaning different evaluations render different material from which to choose.
Both of these processes contribute to the sense of falling apart in the lines. Note that randomizetimegradient applies more strongly to the strings, while gradualnoteremoval is not at all applied to the strings, meaning the string attacks end up being much more unpredictable, but they maintain all of their notes. Dynamic gradation simply creates a progression of velocities to help in the simulation.
Figure 9. Sliding Apart patch 3. The interpretation of data for this piece involved multiple steps of reworking the output data by hand. The major changes from the output data were the inclusion of an interruption and another process also generated in OpenMusic cross-fading with the ongoing progression. The cross-fading process, a rising, somewhat spectral piano chord progression, helps offset two problems in the first progression.
It counteracts the loss of energy created by the falling-apart progression, and it distracts from the increasing predictability of where the first progression is headed. Sliding Apart score segment, showing the gradual deceleration and downward motion of the flute and clarinet lines along with increased randomness in both the violin and cello lines. The small downward slashes after some notes represent short glissandi. One particular progression which returns in different parts of the piece is the most salient example and a relevant look at how many of the same processes from Sliding Apart can be used to different ends.
The passage seen in Figure 13 builds toward a climax, so many of the same processes as in Sliding Apart can be seen in reverse. There is also a process within a process, as the concatenated base segments of. Left: patch createbasePatternWithMultipleEvaluations.
Right: Main patch for Melodious Viscosity part 1. The most important process is gradualnoteremoval see Figure 12again in con- junction with adjustdurations in order to fill out the space emptied by the removal of notes. Each instrument is given separate parameters for when to enter. There is also an acceleration treatment through rhythmextendcompress, but in the end I deemed it simpler for the players to read an accelerando in the score; although the OpenMusic process helped me gauge the efficiency of the process as a whole.
A crucial part of the interpretation of results in this piece involved performing many evaluations. After that, bars were chosen from different sets of results that filled certain auditory criteria, including a desire for a feeling of evenly distributed randomness, attack points that did not sound like errors, and interesting harmonic coincidences. Then a partial reinterpretation was done, primarily of what I perceived to be the leading lines: bassoon on the bottom staff of Figure 13 as well as the highest-pitched line present.
Finally, touches of colour were added: occasional harmonic contributions by instruments where the texture was too thin, and occasional performance techniques momentarily to draw attention away from the progression. This progression occurs in two section of the piece, and the CAC framework allowed the creation of two independent, but closely linked, progressions.
This was the first piece where progressions were mapped from bpfs, and exceptionally the base material was developed in OpenMusic rather than imported. The homophonic moving chords carry the distinctive harmonies of a ring modulation. Short rhythmic segments change speed, reflecting their slopes on the generating bpf.
All of this is juxtaposed with sudden stops in the fast and difficult-to-predict lines. First, as shown in Figure 14, a rhythm is developed from the hand-designed bpf createrhythmfrombpf - linelength. The steeper the slope of a bpf segment, the faster the notes repeat. Then the same bpf shape is used to apply pitches to the existing rhythm apply notes to rhythm chord-seq. At this point, the result is still a single melody it enters Figure 15 via the connec- tion at the top leftbut is then passed to applybyatoms to apply a ring-modulation one note at a time, using the given note from the chord-seq as the carrier and the mapped value from the bpf as the modulator.
Note that the shape of the line has changed Figure Between the carrier, modulator, upper sideband, and lower sideband10 there are now chords of four notes throughout the progression, and the function split chords to melodies splits these into four new lines the opposite of the function merge. The final significant function, applied to the four chord-seqs using the applytoseveralscoreobjects applicator, is noteremovalbybpf, which uses a bpf with y-values from 0 to to determine stochastically the percentage chance that a given note stays or is removed.
In this case, it is arranged so that as the melodic line moves higher there are more notes retained. Finally MIDI channel numbers are applied to each line, and the output is displayed in a multi-seq. The interpretation process for this piece differs from the others in that I did not use the final result as a whole passage anywhere in the piece, but rather elected to use it as the structure for the work: repeating segments of it Album) juxtaposing more Romantic-sounding piano lines against the rather harsh fragments of the original progression see Figure The inter- ruptions do not follow any mathematical pattern, and cannot, in the end, be predicted by any factors in the progression, giving the piece a sense of continual surprise within a context of a clearly-defined trajectory.
Compare Figure 16 and Figure 17 to see how some of the source material was chosen, split up, and repeated segment a in mm. In many cases, for variety, several evaluations of one passage were used, differing slightly due to the stochastic noteremovalbybpf process Figure For example, note the dif- ferences between motives in measures 10 and Otherwise, aside from removing an occasional note that fell out of range, the lines were not significantly altered to preserve the raw quality of the original data.
Figure 16 shows a few examples of these. The flute, clarinet, violin, and cello are all based on the same rhythm throughout, although sometimes with missing notes. Note at the beginning of m. Similarly in m. These artefacts finally provided much of the colour for the piece. First a matrix is created with the required number of cells of the original material for each instrument.
Figure 18 shows what this matrix might resemble schematically, with cells as columns and instruments as rows; Figure 19 shows how this matrix is processed in the OpenMusic patches. The first treatment applied to the matrix is a transposition. The bpf is sampled to determine the transposition for each cell based on its position in the progression, and then the transposition is applied to each cell as a whole.
By maintaining a constant transposition for a whole cell, and then jumping to a new transposition as opposed to moving there graduallythe intervallic relations in each cell are maintained. Next, only a portion of each cell is preserved, again using the same bpf mapped to the select with intervals function and applied to individual cells.
This mapping and application of the function is done using applybpfstomatrix once again. As opposed to a standard select function, select with intervals forces the selection only at certain time intervals in the passage.
For example, this ensures that if it received the mapped starting and ending points of and ms, it actually would select from to ms for an interval of ms. The function also contains safeguards to ensure that the final resulting chord-seqs are in fact the exact length requested, even if there is empty space at the end, and takes not only entire notes, but cuts portions of notes where necessary at the beginning and end.
The most characteristic aspect of the progression is the repeatsegment function applied to each cell. This function cuts out a segment from somewhere in the chord-seq and appends it a certain number of times to the end.
In this case, due to the mapping by applybpfstomatrix, the length of the portion to extract and the number of times it is repeated are both controlled by the same bpf shapes that have controlled everything else. Thus, as the bpf moves higher, creating higher transpositions, intensity is also accrued by shortening the cells unexpectedly and by obsessively repeating their final segments.
Finally, the speedchange function quantifies the note lengths so that the notation software in this case Sibelius recognises them as eighth notes for example ms at a tempo of Figure 20 shows how one cell might change as it passes through all of these functions.
Because the structural integrity is maintained from the original cell provided, this type of progression is already much more logical to the ear, and finding a convincing progression involves mostly work on the initial bpf and some of the scaling factors.
The work of interpreting this data into a score is less destructive, involving primarily the addition of dynamics, to sculpt a curve of intensity reflecting the direction of the passage, as well as articulation. Both of these additions help punctuate clear divisions between the original cells in OpenMusic, so that the beginning of each new cell is clearly recognisable.
Figure 21 shows a segment of the final score. Further tools While the applications for this modular system have not been exhaustively explored, some simple additional tools have drastically multiplied the contexts in which these patches are effective. The former passes through all the notes in a chord-seq, and if they do not belong to the supplied mode, alters the notes so that they do. The later takes a list of chord-seqs corresponding to different instruments for example and adjusts the final note of all but the longest so they are all of equal length.
While working with matrices of chord-seqs, where all the elements in a row will eventually be concatenated, this can be crucial in ensuring that the instruments the different rows line up with each other. Other OpenMusic and sequencing resources also could allow more complex and layered progressions. One possibility is to use multiple channels corresponding to different playing techniques of one instrument, to allow gradual progressions where the stochastic chances of each techniques change throughout the piece.
Another is to use 3dcs three- dimensional curves to map the y- and z-axes to different elements of a progression. At present, no data developed in this system could be used as music in its raw form, but analysing why helps us move closer to musical results both with OpenMusic and by hand. The more we can formalise solutions to the problems associated with musical data from OpenMusic, the better we are prepared to formalise solutions for issues in our own music by other means.
It becomes irrelevant whether a composer creates a patch to rectify a problematic passage or finally composes it by hand: once the patch is created, it means that the composer understands perfectly the cause and solution to the problem in small steps. Consequently, should a composer never even use a note of data taken from OpenMusic, the process of programming these progressions remains inherently valuable.
References  Michael Gogins. Computer Music Journal, 15 1 The Technique of My Musical Language.
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