Discipline - Fromm (2) - Breaking The Fourth Wall (File, MP3)
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The maximum number of chunks that can be efficiently Psychological Review,vol. By breaking the list of ten words into multiple, smaller chunks e. Regarding Chunking is often applied as a general technique to simplify designs. This is a short-term memory limits, see, for example, potential misapplication of the principle. Reference-related tasks consist primarily of scanning for a particular item; chunking in this case would dramatically increase the scan time and effort, and yield no benefits.
Chunk information when people are required to recall and retain information, or when information is used for problem solving. Do not chunk information that is to be searched or scanned. In environments where noise or stress can interfere with concentration, consider chunking critical display information in anticipation of diminished short-term memory capacity.
Note that the number of content topics left gray panel observes the appropriate limits, as do the information chunks on the topics themselves. Overview and Challenge are not counted because they contain organizing information and quizzes only. Familiar Discipline - Fromm (2) - Breaking The Fourth Wall (File are easier to remember and chunk together than unfamiliar words. Of the two lists, list 1 is easier to recall. Chunking large strings of numbers into multiple, smaller strings can help.
Most people can remember their Social Security number and frequently called phone numbers. Classical conditioning was the first type of learning to be studied by behavioral 1 The seminal work in classical conditioning is Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the psychologists.
Lab workers discovered the technique when they noticed that dogs Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex by in the laboratory began salivating as soon as they entered the room. Because Ivan Pavlov, translated and edited by G. Anrep, Dover Publications, Watson and Rosalie Rayner, Journal sound of a can opener. Kampe, Chris D. Classical conditioning is commonly used in animal training e.
Dolan, and Uta Frith, chemical traces of TNT with sugar water to train bees to detect bombsbehavior Nature,v. For example, television and magazine advertising firms use classical conditioning frequently to associate products and services with specific thoughts and feelings. Images of attractive people stimulate reward centers in the brain, and condition positive associations with products, services, and behaviors.
Conversely, disturbing images of extreme violence or injury stimulate pain centers in the brain, and condition negative associations with products, services, and behaviors. Human emotions condition quickly and easily in this way, particularly when the association is negative.
In a classic experiment, a young child was exposed to a white rat accompanied by a loud noise. The child not only grew to fear the white rat which he did not fear previouslybut other furry things as well e. Many phobias are caused by this type of association. For example, many children become anxious when visiting the dentist because previous experiences have been painful—dentists often give children treats in an attempt to reverse this association.
Repeated pairings of a design with a trigger stimulus will condition an association over time. Examples of positive trigger stimuli include anything that causes pleasure or evokes a positive emotional response—a picture of food, the sound of a drink being poured, images of attractive people. Examples of negative trigger stimuli include anything that causes pain or evokes a negative emotional response—physical pain of a vaccination, an embarrassing experience, or images of extreme pain and violence.
The tendency to perceive a single pattern is so Forschung,vol. For example, when individual line segments are positioned Willis D. Ellis ed. The tendency to perceive information in this way is automatic and subconscious; it is likely a function of an innate 2 See, for example, Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art by Scott McCloud, Kitchen Sink preference for simplicity over complexity, and pattern over randomness.
Closure is strongest when elements approximate simple, recognizable patterns, such as geometric forms, and are located near one another. When simple, recognizable patterns are not easily perceived, designers can create closure through transitional elements e. Generally, if the energy required to find or form a pattern is greater than the energy required to perceive the elements individually, closure will not occur.
The principle of closure enables designers to reduce complexity by reducing the number of elements needed to organize and communicate information. For example, a logo design that is composed of recognizable elements does not need to complete many of its lines and contours to be clear and effective. Reducing the number of lines in the logo not only reduces its complexity, but it makes the logo more interesting to look at—viewers subconsciously participate in the completion of its design.
Many forms of storytelling leverage closure in a similar way. For example, in comic books, discrete scenes in time are presented to readers, who then supply what happens in between. The storyline is a unique combination of information provided by the storyteller, and information provided by the reader. When designs involve simple and recognizable patterns, consider removing or minimizing the elements in the design that can be supplied by viewers.
When designs involve more complex patterns, consider the use of transitional elements to assist viewers in finding or forming the pattern. Elements in text and graphics can be minimized to allow viewers to participate in the completion of the pattern. The result is a more interesting design. Series images are understood as representing motion because people supply the information in between the images.
People strive to have consistency among their attitudes, thoughts, and beliefs. If two cognitions agree with A comprehensive review of the theory is one another, there is consonance, and a state of comfort results. If two cognitions Cognitive Dissonance: Progress on a Pivotal disagree with one another, there is dissonance, and a state of discomfort results. People alleviate cognitive dissonance in one of three ways: by reducing the importance of dissonant cognitions, adding consonant cognitions, or removing or changing dissonant cognitions.
In order to alleviate the dissonance, people can reduce the importance of the dissonant cognition e. When a situation involves incentives, it is interesting to note that incentives of different sizes yield different results. When incentives for an unpleasant task are small, people reduce dissonance by changing the dissonant cognition e. When incentives for an unpleasant task are large, people reduce dissonance by adding a consonant cognition e. When incentives are small, people are inclined to change the way the way they feel about what they are doing to alleviate dissonance.
When incentives increase, people retain their original beliefs and alleviate dissonance by justifying their participation with their compensation. A small incentive is usually required to get a person to consider an unpleasant thought or engage in an unpleasant activity. Any incentive beyond this small incentive reduces, not increases, the probability of changing attitudes and beliefs—this critical point is known as the point of minimum justification.
Use consonant and dissonant information when attempting to change beliefs. Engage people to invest their time, attention, and participation to create dissonant cognitions, and then provide simple and immediate mechanisms to alleviate the dissonance.
When using compensation to reinforce change, use the minimal compensation possible to achieve change. Incentives exceeding this level will continue to change behavior, but will fail to change attitude. The incentive to try AOL is provided in the form of a free trial period. People who try the service go through a set-up process, where they define unique e-mail addresses, screen names, and passwords, investing time and energy to get it all to work. The greater the time and energy invested during this trial period, the greater the cognitive dissonance at the time of expiration.
Since the compensation to engage in this activity was minimal, the way most people alleviate the dissonance is to have positive feelings about the service—which leads to paid subscriptions. Color can make designs more visually interesting and aesthetic, and can reinforce 1 A nice treatment of color theory is Interaction of Color by Josef Albers, Yale University Press, the organization and meaning of elements in a design.
If applied improperly, For a more applied treatment, see The however, color can seriously harm the form and function of a design. The following Art of Color: The Subjective Experience and guidelines address common issues regarding the use of color. Use color conservatively. Limit the palette to what the eye can process at one glance about five colors depending on the complexity of the design. Do not use 2 It is reasonable to assume that dark colors will color as the only means to impart information since a significant portion of the make people sleepy, light colors will make population has limited color vision.
Otherwise, the only observable Color Combinations influence of color on behavior is its ability to lead people to repaint walls unnecessarily. For Achieve aesthetic color combinations by using adjacent colors on the color wheel those determined to try to calm drunks and analogousopposing colors on the color wheel complementarycolors at win football games through the application the corners of a symmetrical polygon circumscribed in the color wheel triadic of color, see The Power of Color by Morton and quadraticor color combinations found in nature.
Use warmer colors for Walker, Avery Publishing, Light gray is a safe color to use for grouping elements without competing with other colors. Saturation Use saturated colors pure hues when attracting attention is the priority. Use desaturated colors when performance and efficiency are the priority. Generally, desaturated, bright colors are perceived as friendly and professional; desaturated, dark colors are perceived as serious and professional; and saturated colors are perceived as more exciting and dynamic.
Exercise caution when combining saturated colors, as they can visually interfere with one another and increase eye fatigue. Symbolism There is no substantive evidence supporting general effects of color on emotion or mood. Similarly, there is no universal symbolism for different colors—different cultures attach different meanings to colors.
Therefore, verify the meaning of colors and color combinations for a particular target audience prior to use. Complementary Example from Nature Quadratic Example from Nature Complementary color combinations Quadratic color combinations use use two colors that are directly across colors at that corners of a square from each other on the color wheel.
Hues from violet to green-yellow are cool. Brightness Saturation refers to the amount of gray added to a hue. As saturation increases, the amount of gray decreases.
Brightness refers to the amount of white added to a hue—as brightness increases, the amount of white increases. However, if certain Willis D. Sekuler and Patrick J. Bennett, same time and velocity, and in the same direction. As any of these factors vary, Psychological Science,Vol. One exception is when the motion exhibits — When certain elements are in motion and others are stationary, the moving objects will be perceived as figure elements, and stationary ones will be perceived as ground elements.
When elements within a region move together with the bounding edge of the region, the elements and the region will be perceived as the figure. When elements within a region move together, but the bounding edge of the region remains stationary or moves opposite to the elements, the elements within the region will be perceived as the ground. Related elements should move at the same time, velocity, and direction, or flicker at the same time, frequency, and intensity.
It is possible to group elements when these variables are dissimilar, but only if the motion or flicker forms a recognizable pattern. When moving elements within bounded regions, move the edges of the region in the same direction as the elements to achieve a figure relationship or in the opposite direction as the elements to achieve a ground relationship.
See also Figure-Ground Relationship and Similarity. However, when a mix of fate to group tracked aircraft with the Xs and Os move up and down in key information about their identities a common fashion, they are grouped and headings. People understand the way the world works by identifying relationships and 1 See, for example, Visual Explanations, patterns in or between systems.
One of the most powerful methods of identifying Graphics Press, ; and Envisioning Information, Graphics Press, both by and understanding these relationships is to represent information in controlled Edward R.
Key techniques for making valid comparisons are apples to apples, single contexts, and benchmarks. For example, when comparing crime rates of different countries, it is necessary to account for differences in variables such as population, types of laws, and level of law enforcement. Otherwise, conclusions based on the comparison will be unreliable. Common methods of ensuring apples-to-apples comparisons include clearly disclosing details of how variables were measured, making corrections to the data as necessary to eliminate confounding variables, and representing the variables using the same graphical and numerical standards.
Single Context Comparison data should be presented in a single context, so that subtle differences and patterns in the data are detectable. For example, the ability to detect patterns across multiple graphs is lower if the graphs are located on separate pages versus the same page. Common methods of representing information in single contexts include the use of a small number of displays that combine many variables versus many separate displaysand multiple small views of system states known as small multiples in a single display versus multiple displays.
Benchmarks Claims about evidence or phenomena should be accompanied by benchmark variables so that clear and substantive comparisons can be made. For example, claims about the seriousness of the size of the U.
Common types of benchmark data include past performance data, competitor data, or data from well-accepted industry standards. Use comparisons to convincingly illustrate patterns and relationships. Ensure that compared variables are apples to apples by measuring and representing variables in common ways, correcting for confounds in the data as necessary.
Use multivariate displays and small multiples to present comparisons in single contexts when possible. Use benchmarks to anchor comparisons and provide a point of reference from which to evaluate the data. The graphs are composed patterns and relationships in the data of twelve wedges, each representing can be studied within one context. Additionally, each wedge Deaths resulting from war wounds has three layers representing three serve as a compelling benchmark to different causes of death.
A quick illustrate the significance of disease, review of the graphs reveals that the as does the earlier graph for the real threat to British troops was not the later graph. The graphs have been Russians, but cholera, dysentery, and corrected based on original data typhus.
The graphs make apples-to- apples comparisons, representing the same variable death rates the same way area of the wedge. It 1 Also known as verification principle and provides a means for verifying that an action or input is intentional and correct forcing function. Confirmations are primarily used to prevent a class of errors called slips, which are unintended actions. Confirmations slow task performance, 2 See, for example, The Design of Everyday Things by Donald Norman, Doubleday, ; and should be reserved for use with critical or irreversible operations only.
Kohn, Janet M. There are two basic confirmation Corrigan, and Molla S. Donaldson, National techniques: dialog and two-step operation. Confirmation using a dialog involves establishing a verbal interaction with the person using the system. It is most commonly represented as a dialog box on a software display e. In this method, dialog boxes directly ask the user if the action was intended and if they would like to proceed. Confirmations should be used sparingly, or people will become frus- trated at the frequent interruption and then learn to ignore them.
Dialog messages should be concise but detailed enough to accurately convey the implications of the action. The message should end with one question that is structured to be answered Yes or No, or with an action verb that conveys the action to be performed the use of OK and Cancel should be avoided for confirmations. For less critical confirmations that act more as reminders, an option to disable the confirmation should be provided. Confirmation using a two-step operation involves a preliminary step that must occur prior to the actual command or input.
For example, a switch cover might have to be lifted in order to activate a switch, two people might have to turn two unique keys in order to launch a nuclear weapon, or a control handle in a spacecraft might have to be rotated and then pushed down in order to be activated.
The purpose of the two-step operation is to prevent accidental activation of a critical control. If the operation works only when the two-step sequence has been completed, it is unlikely that the operation will occur accidentally. Two-step operations are commonly used for critical operations in aircraft, nuclear power plants, and other environments involving dangerous operations.
Use confirmations to minimize errors in the performance of critical or irreversible operations. Avoid overusing confirmations to ensure that they are unexpected and uncommon; otherwise, they may be ignored. Use a two-step operation for hardware confirmations, and a dialog box for software confirmations. Permit MP3) critical confirmations to be disabled after an initial confirmation. It is recommended that all messages have subjects.
Would you like to send the message anyway? According to the principle of consistency, systems are more usable and learnable 1 Use consistent approaches when possible, but do not compromise clarity or usability when similar parts are expressed in similar ways. Consistency enables people to for consistency. Aesthetic consistency enhances recognition, communicates membership, and sets emotional expectations. For example, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are instantly recognizable because the company consistently features its logo prominently on the hood or grill of its vehicles.
The logo has become associated with quality and prestige, and informs people how they should feel about the vehicle—i. Functional consistency refers to consistency of meaning and action e. Functional consistency improves usability and learnability by enabling people to leverage existing knowledge about how the design functions. For example, videocassette recorder control symbols, such as for rewind, play, forward, are now used on devices ranging from slide projectors to MP3 music players.
The consistent use of these symbols on new devices enables people to leverage existing knowledge about how the controls function, which makes the new devices easier to use and learn.
Internal consistency refers to consistency with other elements in the system e. Internal consistency cultivates trust with people; it is an indicator that a system has been designed, and not cobbled together. Within any logical grouping elements should be aesthetically and functionally consistent with one another. External consistency refers to consistency with other elements in the environment e.
External consistency extends the benefits of internal consistency across multiple, independent systems. It is more difficult to achieve because different systems rarely observe common design standards. Consider aesthetic and functional consistency in all aspects of design. Use aesthetic consistency to establish unique identities that can be easily recognized.
Use functional consistency to simplify usability and ease of learning. Ensure that systems are always internally consistent, and externally consistent to the greatest degree possible. When common design standards exist, observe them. For example, Bob Evans uses the same logo, typefaces, color schemes, menus, staff uniforms, interior design, and architecture across its restaurants. This consistency improves brand recognition, reduces costs, and establishes a relationship with customers that extends beyond any single restaurant.
For example, a person viewed at a distance produces a smaller image on the retina than that same person up close, but the 2 Seminal works on constancy include perception of the size of the person is constant. Holway and Edwin G. Boring, American with memories about the properties of things in the world. A few examples of Journal of Psychology,vol. A nice review of the various forms of constancy constancy include: 2 is found in Sensation and Perception by Margaret W.
Matlin and Hugh J. Foley, 4th Size Constancy —The size of objects is perceived to be constant, even though ed. Brightness Constancy —The brightness of objects is perceived to be constant, even though changes in illumination make the objects appear brighter or darker e. Shape Constancy —The shape of objects is perceived to be constant, even though changes in MP3) make the objects appear to have different shapes e. Loudness Constancy —The loudness of a sound is perceived to be constant, even though a change in distance makes the sound seem softer or louder e.
All senses exhibit constancy to some extent. Consider the tendency when designing high-fidelity renderings, simulations, or models of objects and environments. For example, changes in properties like distance, perspective, and illumination should change appropriately for the type of interaction.
Use recognizable objects and distance cues to provide size and shape references for unfamiliar objects. Consider illumination levels and background colors in environments when making decisions about color and brightness levels; lighting and color variations in the environment can trick the senses and alter the perception of color.
Constraints limit the possible actions that can be performed on a system. For 1 The seminal work on psychological constraints example, dimming or hiding unavailable software controls constrains the options is The Design of Everyday Things by Donald Norman, Doubleday, Proper application of constraints in this fashion makes designs easier to use and dramatically reduces the probability of error during 2 Note that Norman uses the terms semantic interaction.
There are two basic kinds of constraints: physical constraints and constraints, cultural constraints, and logical psychological constraints. Physical constraints limit the range of possible actions by redirecting physical motion in specific ways.
The three kinds of physical constraints are paths, axes, and barriers. Paths convert applied forces into linear or curvilinear motion using channels or grooves e.
Axes convert applied forces into rotary motion, effectively providing a control surface of infinite length in a small space e. Barriers absorb or deflect applied forces, thereby halting, slowing, or redirecting the forces around the barrier e. Physical constraints are useful for reducing the sensitivity of controls to unwanted inputs, and denying certain kinds of inputs altogether. Paths are useful in situations where the control variable range is relatively small and bounded.
Axes are useful in situations where control real estate is limited, or the control variables are very large or unbounded. Barriers are useful for denying errant or undesired actions. Psychological constraints limit the range of possible actions by leveraging the way people perceive and think about the world.
The three kinds of psychological constraints are symbols, conventions, and mappings. Symbols influence behavior by communicating meaning through language, such as the text and icon on a warning sign. For example, light switches that are close to a set of lights are perceived to be more related than switches that are far away. Symbols are useful for labeling, explaining, and warning using visual, aural, and tactile representation—all three if the message is critical.
Conventions indicate common methods of understanding and interacting, and are useful for making systems consistent and easy to use. Mappings are useful for implying what actions are possible based on the visibility, location, and appearance of controls. Use physical constraints to reduce the sensitivity of controls, minimize unintentional inputs, and prevent or slow dangerous actions.
Use psychological constraints to improve the clarity and intuitiveness of a design. Moshe Bar and Maital Neta, Psychological Likely a subconscious mechanism that evolved to detect potential threats, this Science,vol. In some of these experiments, brain activity was observed using functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI as subjects indicated their preference. The degree of amygdala activation was proportional to the degree of angularity or sharpness of the object presented, and inversely related to object preference.
These effects were observed in both male and female subjects, and suggest an innately rooted contour bias in humans. Objects used in the experiments were emotionally neutral. For example, a baby doll was not used for a contour object as it carries with it a set of positive emotional associations and biases, and a knife was not used for an angular object as it carries with it a set of negative emotional associations and biases.
It is clear that absent these competing biases and associations, the contour bias is a relevant influencer of overall perception. The degree to which the bias influences perception when competing biases e.
Additionally, objects with pointed features elicited stronger activations in regions of the brain related to associative processing, meaning that although the angular objects were less liked, they elicited a deeper level of processing than did the contoured objects — they were, in effect, more interesting and thought-provoking to look at.
This seems consistent with the kind of innate response one would expect from potential threats and suggests a tradeoff between angular and contoured features: Angular objects are more effective at attracting attention and engaging thought; contoured objects are more effective at making a positive emotional and aesthetic impression.
Consider the contour bias in all aspects of design, but especially with regard to objects and environments that are emotionally neutral. Use angular and pointy features to attract attention and provoke thought. Use contoured features to make a positive first impression. Generally, the degree of angularity corresponds with the strength of amygdala activation, so ensure that the angularity of design elements aligns with the design objectives. The Alessi il Conico, and and incorporate both angular Mami kettles arranged from most and contoured features, balancing angular to most contoured.
At the attention-getting with likeability. People should be able to exercise control over what a system does, but the level 1 See, for example, The Psychology of Human- of control should be related to their proficiency and experience using the system. Computer Interaction by Stuart K. Card, Thomas P. Moran, and Allen Newell, Lawrence Beginners do best with a reduced amount of control, while experts do best with Erlbaum Associates, ; and The Humane greater control.
A simple example is when children learn to ride a bicycle. Initially, Interface: New Directions MP3) Designing training wheels are helpful in reducing the difficulty of riding by reducing the Interactive Systems by Jef Raskin, Addison- level of control e.
This allows the Wesley Once the basic skills are mastered, the training wheels get in the way, and hinder performance. As expertise increases, so too does the need for greater control. For example, novice users of word processors MP3) save their documents by accessing the File menu and selecting Save, whereas more proficient users typically save their documents using a keyboard shortcut. Both methods achieve the same outcome, but one favors simplicity and structure, while the other favors efficiency and flexibility.
This tradeoff is standard when allocating system control. Beginners benefit from structured interactions with minimal choices, typically supported by prompts, constraints, and ready access to help.
Experts benefit from less structured interactions that provide more direct access to functions, bypassing the support devices of beginners. Since accommodating multiple methods increases the complexity of the system, the number of methods for any given task should be limited to two—one for beginners, and one for experts. The need to provide expert shortcuts is limited to systems that are used frequently enough for people to develop expertise.
For example, the design of museum kiosks and ATMs should assume that all users are first-time users, and not try to accommodate varying levels of expertise. When systems are used frequently enough for people to develop expertise, it is often useful to provide simple ways to customize the system design. This represents the highest level of control a design can provide. It enables the appearance and configuration of a system to be aligned with personal preferences and level of expertise, and enables the efficiency of use to be fine-tuned according to individual needs over time.
Consider the allocation of control in the design of complex systems. When possible, use a method that is equally simple and efficient for beginners and experts.
Otherwise, provide methods specialized for beginners and experts. Conceal expert methods to the extent possible to minimize complexity for beginners.
When systems are complex and frequently used, consider designs that can be customized to conform to individual preference and levels of expertise. For example, Macromedia Flash supports novice and expert developers by providing different user modes when writing scripts. Selecting the Expert Mode permits unconstrained command entry into the editor field. Selecting Normal Mode permits constrained entry only, requiring commands to be Line 2 of 2, Col 1 entered into specialized fields so that they can be immediately checked for correctness.
This process results in the convergence of form and function over time. The degree of convergence in an environment 2 For opposing perspectives on convergence in indicates its stability and receptivity to different kinds of innovation. In human-created designs, this process can happen more quickly.
For example, the 3 Alternatively, environments can be modified. For example, stable environments can be design of virtually all automobiles today includes elements such as a four-wheel destabilized to promote innovation—e. The result is a rate of evolution that is slow and incremental, tending toward refinements on existing convergent themes. Contrast this with the life-forms during the Cambrian period million years ago and dot-com companies of the s; both periods of great diversity and experimentation of system form and function.
This low degree of convergence indicates a volatile environment—one that is still changing—with few or no stable optimal strategies around which system designs can converge. The result is a rapid and disruptive rate of evolution, often resulting in new and innovative approaches that depart from previous designs. Stable environments with convergent system designs are receptive to minor innovations and refinements but resist radical departures from established designs. Unstable environments with no convergent system designs are receptive to major innovations and experimentation, but offer little guidance as to which designs may or may not be successful.
Focus on variations of convergent designs in stable environments, and explore analogies with other environments and systems for guidance when designing for new or unstable environments. The set of strategies for flight has converged to just gliding and flapping but expands to include buoyancy and jet propulsion when flight is reconsidered as movement through a fluid.
In this case, the Buoyancy degree of convergence still indicates environments that have been stable for some time. New flying systems that do not use one or more of these strategies are unlikely to compete successfully in similar environments. From a design perspective, the cost-benefit principle is typically used to assess the financial return associated with new features and elements.
The cost-benefit principle can also be applied to determine design quality from a user perspective. If the costs associated with interacting with a design outweigh the benefits, the design is poor. If the benefits outweigh the costs, the design is good. For example, walking some distance to see a museum exhibit constitutes a cost.
The level of interest in the exhibit constitutes a benefit. Thus, if the level of interest outweighs the cost of the walk, the exhibit design is good. The quality of every design aspect can be measured using the cost-benefit principle.
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